KEGG   PATHWAY: mcal05217
Entry
mcal05217                   Pathway                                

Name
Basal cell carcinoma - Mus caroli (Ryukyu mouse)
Description
Cancer of the skin is the most common cancer in Caucasians and basal cell carcinomas (BCC) account for 90% of all skin cancers. The vast majority of BCC cases are sporadic, though there is a rare familial syndrome basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS, or Gorlin syndrome) that predisposes to development of BCC. In addition, there is strong epidemiological and genetic evidence that demonstrates UV exposure as a risk factor of prime importance. The development of basal cell carcinoma is associated with constitutive activation of sonic hedgehog signaling. The mutations in SMOH, PTCH1, and SHH in BCCs result in continuous activation of target genes. At a cellular level, sonic hedgehog signaling promotes cell proliferation. Mutations in TP53 are also found with high frequency (>50%) in sporadic BCC.
Class
Human Diseases; Cancer: specific types
Pathway map
mcal05217  Basal cell carcinoma
mcal05217

Organism
Mus caroli (Ryukyu mouse) [GN:mcal]
Gene
110305297  Tp53; cellular tumor antigen p53 isoform X1 [KO:K04451]
110283679  Cdkn1a; cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 [KO:K06625]
110303739  Gadd45b; growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein GADD45 beta [KO:K04402]
110296344  Gadd45a; growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein GADD45 alpha [KO:K04402]
110308191  Gadd45g; growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein GADD45 gamma [KO:K04402]
110297919  Bax; apoptosis regulator BAX isoform X1 [KO:K02159]
110283660  Bak1; bcl-2 homologous antagonist/killer [KO:K14021]
110290093  Ddb2; DNA damage-binding protein 2 [KO:K10140]
110308520  Polk; DNA polymerase kappa isoform X1 [KO:K03511] [EC:2.7.7.7]
110294612  Shh; sonic hedgehog protein isoform X1 [KO:K11988]
110307775  Ptch1; protein patched homolog 1 [KO:K06225]
110296420  Smo; smoothened homolog [KO:K06226]
110298102  Kif7; kinesin-like protein KIF7 isoform X1 [KO:K18806]
110285570  Sufu; suppressor of fused homolog isoform X1 [KO:K06229]
110303011  Gli1; zinc finger protein GLI1 [KO:K16797]
110297010  Gli2; zinc finger protein GLI2 [KO:K16798]
110308037  Gli3; transcriptional activator GLI3 [KO:K06230]
110289488  Bmp2; bone morphogenetic protein 2 [KO:K21283]
110309274  Bmp4; bone morphogenetic protein 4 [KO:K04662]
110300050  Hhip; hedgehog-interacting protein [KO:K06231]
110292729  Ptch2; protein patched homolog 2 isoform X1 [KO:K11101]
110310964  Wnt1; proto-oncogene Wnt-1 [KO:K03209]
110296313  Wnt2; protein Wnt-2 [KO:K00182]
110291476  Wnt2b; protein Wnt-2b [KO:K00182]
110305853  Wnt3a; protein Wnt-3a [KO:K00312]
110304911  Wnt3; proto-oncogene Wnt-3 [KO:K00312]
110293218  Wnt4; protein Wnt-4 isoform X1 [KO:K00408]
110295760  Wnt5b; protein Wnt-5b [KO:K00444]
110309360  Wnt5a; protein Wnt-5a isoform X1 [KO:K00444]
110299810  Wnt6; protein Wnt-6 [KO:K00445]
110310689  Wnt7b; protein Wnt-7b isoform X1 [KO:K00572]
110296669  Wnt7a; protein Wnt-7a isoform X1 [KO:K00572]
110285759  Wnt8b; protein Wnt-8b [KO:K00714]
110285093  Wnt8a; protein Wnt-8a [KO:K00714]
110306039  Wnt9a; protein Wnt-9a isoform X1 [KO:K01064]
110305968  Wnt9b; protein Wnt-9b [KO:K01064]
110310912  Wnt10b; protein Wnt-10b isoform X1 [KO:K01357]
110300434  Wnt10a; protein Wnt-10a [KO:K01357]
110298907  Wnt11; protein Wnt-11 isoform X1 [KO:K01384]
110296883  Wnt16; protein Wnt-16 [KO:K01558]
110301431  Fzd7; frizzled-7 [KO:K02432]
110294363  Fzd1; frizzled-1 [KO:K02432]
110305336  Fzd2; frizzled-2 [KO:K02235]
110309352  Fzd3; frizzled-3 [KO:K02329]
110298417  Fzd4; frizzled-4 [KO:K02354]
110294401  Fzd5; frizzled-5 [KO:K02375]
110284745  Fzd8; frizzled-8 [KO:K02375]
110310580  Fzd6; frizzled-6 [KO:K02376]
110295350  Fzd9; frizzled-9 [KO:K02842]
110295197  Fzd10; frizzled-10 [KO:K02842]
110292264  Dvl1; segment polarity protein dishevelled homolog DVL-1 isoform X1 [KO:K02353]
110304161  Dvl2; segment polarity protein dishevelled homolog DVL-2 [KO:K02353]
110311604  Dvl3; segment polarity protein dishevelled homolog DVL-3 [KO:K02353]
110311365  Gsk3b; glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta [KO:K03083] [EC:2.7.11.26]
110284040  Axin1; axin-1 isoform X1 [KO:K02157]
110304669  Axin2; axin-2 [KO:K04385]
110284455  Apc; adenomatous polyposis coli protein [KO:K02085]
110303367  Apc2; adenomatous polyposis coli protein 2 isoform X1 [KO:K02085]
110301052  Ctnnb1; catenin beta-1 [KO:K02105]
110304948  Tcf7; transcription factor 7 isoform X1 [KO:K02620]
110296038  Tcf7l1; transcription factor 7-like 1 isoform X1 [KO:K04490]
110285273  Tcf7l2; transcription factor 7-like 2 isoform X1 [KO:K04491]
110290892  Lef1; lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 isoform X1 [KO:K04492]
Compound
C00187  Cholesterol
Reference
  Authors
Tilli CM, Van Steensel MA, Krekels GA, Neumann HA, Ramaekers FC.
  Title
Molecular aetiology and pathogenesis of basal cell carcinoma.
  Journal
Br J Dermatol 152:1108-24 (2005)
DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2133.2005.06587.x
Reference
  Authors
Saldanha G, Fletcher A, Slater DN.
  Title
Basal cell carcinoma: a dermatopathological and molecular biological update.
  Journal
Br J Dermatol 148:195-202 (2003)
DOI:10.1046/j.1365-2133.2003.05151.x
Reference
  Authors
Daya-Grosjean L, Couve-Privat S.
  Title
Sonic hedgehog signaling in basal cell carcinomas.
  Journal
Cancer Lett 225:181-92 (2005)
DOI:10.1016/j.canlet.2004.10.003
Reference
  Authors
Tsai KY, Tsao H.
  Title
The genetics of skin cancer.
  Journal
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 131C:82-92 (2004)
DOI:10.1002/ajmg.c.30037
Reference
  Authors
Athar M, Tang X, Lee JL, Kopelovich L, Kim AL.
  Title
Hedgehog signalling in skin development and cancer.
  Journal
Exp Dermatol 15:667-77 (2006)
DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0625.2006.00473.x
Reference
  Authors
Rubin AI, Chen EH, Ratner D.
  Title
Basal-cell carcinoma.
  Journal
N Engl J Med 353:2262-9 (2005)
DOI:10.1056/NEJMra044151
Reference
  Authors
Saldanha G.
  Title
The Hedgehog signalling pathway and cancer.
  Journal
Reference
  Authors
Saldanha G, Ghura V, Potter L, Fletcher A.
  Title
Nuclear beta-catenin in basal cell carcinoma correlates with increased proliferation.
  Journal
Br J Dermatol 151:157-64 (2004)
DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2133.2004.06048.x
Reference
  Authors
Pasca di Magliano M, Hebrok M.
  Title
Hedgehog signalling in cancer formation and maintenance.
  Journal
Nat Rev Cancer 3:903-11 (2003)
DOI:10.1038/nrc1229
Reference
  Authors
Reifenberger J, Wolter M, Knobbe CB, Kohler B, Schonicke A, Scharwachter C, Kumar K, Blaschke B, Ruzicka T, Reifenberger G.
  Title
Somatic mutations in the PTCH, SMOH, SUFUH and TP53 genes in sporadic basal cell carcinomas.
  Journal
Br J Dermatol 152:43-51 (2005)
DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2133.2005.06353.x
Reference
  Authors
Cohen MM Jr.
  Title
The hedgehog signaling network.
  Journal
Am J Med Genet A 123:5-28 (2003)
DOI:10.1002/ajmg.a.20495
Reference
  Authors
Yamazaki F, Aragane Y, Kawada A, Tezuka T.
  Title
Immunohistochemical detection for nuclear beta-catenin in sporadic basal cell carcinoma.
  Journal
Br J Dermatol 145:771-7 (2001)
DOI:10.1046/j.1365-2133.2001.04468.x
Reference
  Authors
Erb P, Ji J, Wernli M, Kump E, Glaser A, Buchner SA.
  Title
Role of apoptosis in basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma formation.
  Journal
Immunol Lett 100:68-72 (2005)
DOI:10.1016/j.imlet.2005.06.008
Reference
  Authors
Toftgard R.
  Title
Hedgehog signalling in cancer.
  Journal
Cell Mol Life Sci 57:1720-31 (2000)
DOI:10.1007/PL00000654
Reference
  Authors
Wu F, Zhang Y, Sun B, McMahon AP, Wang Y
  Title
Hedgehog Signaling: From Basic Biology to Cancer Therapy.
  Journal
Cell Chem Biol 24:252-280 (2017)
DOI:10.1016/j.chembiol.2017.02.010
Reference
  Authors
Otsuka A, Levesque MP, Dummer R, Kabashima K
  Title
Hedgehog signaling in basal cell carcinoma.
  Journal
J Dermatol Sci 78:95-100 (2015)
DOI:10.1016/j.jdermsci.2015.02.007
Related
pathway
mcal04110  Cell cycle
mcal04115  p53 signaling pathway
mcal04310  Wnt signaling pathway
mcal04340  Hedgehog signaling pathway
mcal04350  TGF-beta signaling pathway
KO pathway
ko05217   
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