KEGG   PATHWAY: mna04725
Entry
mna04725                    Pathway                                

Name
Cholinergic synapse - Miniopterus natalensis
Description
Acetylcholine (ACh) is a neurotransmitter widely distributed in the central (and also peripheral, autonomic and enteric) nervous system (CNS). In the CNS, ACh facilitates many functions, such as learning, memory, attention and motor control. When released in the synaptic cleft, ACh binds to two distinct types of receptors: Ionotropic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) and metabotropic muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs). The activation of nAChR by ACh leads to the rapid influx of Na+ and Ca2+ and subsequent cellular depolarization. Activation of mAChRs is relatively slow (milliseconds to seconds) and, depending on the subtypes present (M1-M5), they directly alter cellular homeostasis of phospholipase C, inositol trisphosphate, cAMP, and free calcium. In the cleft, ACh may also be hydrolyzed by acetylcholinesterase (AChE) into choline and acetate. The choline derived from ACh hydrolysis is recovered by a presynaptic high-affinity choline transporter (CHT).
Class
Organismal Systems; Nervous system
Pathway map
mna04725  Cholinergic synapse
mna04725

Other DBs
GO: 0032222
Organism
Miniopterus natalensis [GN:mna]
Gene
107527946  CHAT; choline O-acetyltransferase [KO:K00623] [EC:2.3.1.6]
107540883  ACHE; acetylcholinesterase [KO:K01049] [EC:3.1.1.7]
107527935  SLC18A3; vesicular acetylcholine transporter [KO:K14636]
107539778  CHRM1; muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1 [KO:K04129]
107542477  CHRM3; muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3 [KO:K04131]
107526945  CHRM5; muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M5 [KO:K04133]
107544926  GNAQ; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(q) subunit alpha [KO:K04634]
107544328  GNA11; guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit alpha-11 [KO:K04635]
107542967  PLCB2; 1-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase beta-2 [KO:K05858] [EC:3.1.4.11]
107536366  PLCB4; 1-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase beta-4 isoform X1 [KO:K05858] [EC:3.1.4.11]
107536369  PLCB1; 1-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase beta-1 [KO:K05858] [EC:3.1.4.11]
107539797  PLCB3; 1-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase beta-3 [KO:K05858] [EC:3.1.4.11]
107529142  ITPR1; inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 [KO:K04958]
107525255  ITPR2; inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 2 [KO:K04959]
107541588  ITPR3; inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 3 [KO:K04960]
107538300  PRKCA; protein kinase C alpha type [KO:K02677] [EC:2.7.11.13]
107544745  PRKCB; protein kinase C beta type [KO:K19662] [EC:2.7.11.13]
107540426  PRKCG; protein kinase C gamma type [KO:K19663] [EC:2.7.11.13]
107539908  KCNQ1; potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily KQT member 1 [KO:K04926]
107539489  KCNQ3; potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily KQT member 3 [KO:K04928]
107531170  KCNQ4; potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily KQT member 4 [KO:K04929]
107531620  KCNQ5; potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily KQT member 5 [KO:K04930]
107528389  KCNJ2; inward rectifier potassium channel 2 [KO:K04996]
107542216  KCNJ12; ATP-sensitive inward rectifier potassium channel 12 [KO:K05005]
107545171  KCNJ4; inward rectifier potassium channel 4 [KO:K04998]
107531814  KCNJ14; ATP-sensitive inward rectifier potassium channel 14 [KO:K05007]
107544520  CHRM2; muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 [KO:K04130]
107530288  CHRM4; muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M4 [KO:K04132]
107545320  GNAI3; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(k) subunit alpha [KO:K04630]
107540752  GNAI1; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(i) subunit alpha-1 [KO:K04630]
107545079  GNAI2; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(i) subunit alpha-2 [KO:K04630]
107543463  GNAO1; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(o) subunit alpha isoform X1 [KO:K04534]
107540160  GNB1; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(T) subunit beta-1 [KO:K04536]
107540939  GNB2; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(T) subunit beta-2 [KO:K04537]
107544078  GNB3; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(T) subunit beta-3 [KO:K07825]
107541113  GNB4; guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit beta-4 [KO:K04538]
107546541  GNB5; guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit beta-5 [KO:K04539]
107525867  GNG2; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-2 [KO:K07826]
107543109  GNG3; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-3 [KO:K04540]
107527185  GNG4; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-4 [KO:K04541]
107543194  GNG5; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-5 [KO:K04542]
107534609  GNG7; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-7 [KO:K04543]
107536795  GNG8; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-8 [KO:K04544]
107541861  guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-10 [KO:K04545]
107537622  guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-10-like [KO:K04545]
107541673  GNG11; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-11 [KO:K04546]
107541527  guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-7-like [KO:K04347]
107533406  GNG12; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-12 [KO:K04347]
107533363  GNG13; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-13 [KO:K04547]
107541750  GNGT1; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(T) subunit gamma-T1 [KO:K04548]
107539173  GNGT2; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-T2 [KO:K04549]
107537431  KCNJ3; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: G protein-activated inward rectifier potassium channel 1 [KO:K04997]
107543277  KCNJ6; G protein-activated inward rectifier potassium channel 2 [KO:K05000]
107530834  PIK3CG; phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit gamma isoform [KO:K21289] [EC:2.7.1.153]
107544506  PIK3R6; phosphoinositide 3-kinase regulatory subunit 6 [KO:K21290]
107544531  PIK3R5; phosphoinositide 3-kinase regulatory subunit 5 [KO:K21290]
107542351  HRAS; GTPase HRas isoform X1 [KO:K02833]
107525258  KRAS; GTPase KRas [KO:K07827]
107545303  NRAS; GTPase NRas [KO:K07828]
107533801  MAP2K1; dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 [KO:K04368] [EC:2.7.12.2]
107541504  MAPK3; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 [KO:K04371] [EC:2.7.11.24]
107530451  MAPK1; mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 [KO:K04371] [EC:2.7.11.24]
107533821  FOS; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: proto-oncogene c-Fos [KO:K04379]
107527910  neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-7 [KO:K04809]
107529071  CHRNA4; neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4 isoform X1 [KO:K04806]
107543725  CHRNB2; neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit beta-2 [KO:K04813]
107534467  CHRNA3; neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-3 [KO:K04805]
107534468  CHRNB4; neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit beta-4 [KO:K04815]
107523942  CHRNA6; neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-6 [KO:K04808]
107526004  ADCY1; adenylate cyclase type 1 [KO:K08041] [EC:4.6.1.1]
107540528  ADCY2; adenylate cyclase type 2 [KO:K08042] [EC:4.6.1.1]
107534062  ADCY3; adenylate cyclase type 3 [KO:K08043] [EC:4.6.1.1]
107531740  ADCY4; adenylate cyclase type 4 [KO:K08044] [EC:4.6.1.1]
107527242  ADCY5; adenylate cyclase type 5 isoform X1 [KO:K08045] [EC:4.6.1.1]
107528232  ADCY6; adenylate cyclase type 6 isoform X1 [KO:K08046] [EC:4.6.1.1]
107531029  ADCY7; adenylate cyclase type 7 [KO:K08047] [EC:4.6.1.1]
107539500  ADCY8; adenylate cyclase type 8 isoform X1 [KO:K08048] [EC:4.6.1.1]
107535777  ADCY9; adenylate cyclase type 9 isoform X1 [KO:K08049] [EC:4.6.1.1]
107544336  PRKACA; cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit alpha [KO:K04345] [EC:2.7.11.11]
107543188  PRKACB; cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit beta isoform X1 [KO:K04345] [EC:2.7.11.11]
107524712  CREB1; cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 1 isoform X1 [KO:K05870]
107531265  ATF4; cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-4 [KO:K04374]
107525737  CREB3L3; cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 3-like protein 3 isoform X1 [KO:K09048]
107543873  CREB3L4; cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 3-like protein 4 [KO:K09048]
107530327  CREB3L1; cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 3-like protein 1 [KO:K09048]
107544136  CREB3L2; cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 3-like protein 2 isoform X1 [KO:K09048]
107544933  CREB3; cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 3 [KO:K09048]
107544390  CREB5; cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 5 isoform X1 [KO:K09047]
107545830  CAMK2G; calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II subunit gamma isoform X1 [KO:K04515] [EC:2.7.11.17]
107542053  CAMK2B; calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II subunit beta [KO:K04515] [EC:2.7.11.17]
107535228  CAMK2A; calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II subunit alpha isoform X1 [KO:K04515] [EC:2.7.11.17]
107527851  CAMK2D; calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II subunit delta isoform X1 [KO:K04515] [EC:2.7.11.17]
107546482  CAMK4; calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type IV [KO:K05869] [EC:2.7.11.17]
107538122  JAK2; tyrosine-protein kinase JAK2 [KO:K04447] [EC:2.7.10.2]
107540684  FYN; tyrosine-protein kinase Fyn isoform X1 [KO:K05703] [EC:2.7.10.2]
107532628  PIK3CB; phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit beta isoform isoform X1 [KO:K00922] [EC:2.7.1.153]
107538463  PIK3CD; phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit delta isoform [KO:K00922] [EC:2.7.1.153]
107541106  PIK3CA; phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha isoform [KO:K00922] [EC:2.7.1.153]
107526728  PIK3R3; phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulatory subunit gamma [KO:K02649]
107529317  PIK3R1; phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulatory subunit alpha isoform X1 [KO:K02649]
107535325  PIK3R2; phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulatory subunit beta [KO:K02649]
107542383  AKT1; RAC-alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase [KO:K04456] [EC:2.7.11.1]
107528331  AKT3; RAC-gamma serine/threonine-protein kinase isoform X1 [KO:K04456] [EC:2.7.11.1]
107534199  AKT2; RAC-beta serine/threonine-protein kinase isoform X1 [KO:K04456] [EC:2.7.11.1]
107545431  BCL2; apoptosis regulator Bcl-2 [KO:K02161]
107541038  CACNA1A; voltage-dependent P/Q-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1A [KO:K04344]
107536136  CACNA1B; voltage-dependent N-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1B [KO:K04849]
107546425  CACNA1C; voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1C isoform X1 [KO:K04850]
107534931  CACNA1D; voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1D isoform X1 [KO:K04851]
107541372  CACNA1F; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1F [KO:K04853]
107536018  CACNA1S; voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1S [KO:K04857]
107538152  SLC5A7; high affinity choline transporter 1 [KO:K14387]
Compound
C00010  CoA
C00024  Acetyl-CoA
C00033  Acetate
C00076  Calcium cation
C00114  Choline
C00165  Diacylglycerol
C00238  Potassium cation
C00575  3',5'-Cyclic AMP
C01245  D-myo-Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate
C01330  Sodium cation
C01996  Acetylcholine
C04637  1-Phosphatidyl-D-myo-inositol 4,5-bisphosphate
Reference
  Authors
Nestler EJ, Hyman SE, Malenka RC.
  Title
Molecular neuropharmacology: A foundation for clinical neuroscience
  Journal
The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. (2001)
Reference
  Authors
Nicholls JG, Martin AR, Wallace BG, Fuchs PA.
  Title
From neuron to brain, 4th ed.
  Journal
Sunderland, MA: Sinauer associates (2001)
Reference
  Authors
Dajas-Bailador F, Wonnacott S
  Title
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and the regulation of neuronal signalling.
  Journal
Trends Pharmacol Sci 25:317-24 (2004)
DOI:10.1016/j.tips.2004.04.006
Reference
  Authors
Resende RR, Adhikari A
  Title
Cholinergic receptor pathways involved in apoptosis, cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation.
  Journal
Cell Commun Signal 7:20 (2009)
DOI:10.1186/1478-811X-7-20
Reference
  Authors
Origlia N, Kuczewski N, Pesavento E, Aztiria E, Domenici L
  Title
The role of cholinergic system in neuronal plasticity: focus on visual cortex and muscarinic receptors.
  Journal
Arch Ital Biol 146:165-88 (2008)
Reference
  Authors
Oldenburg IA, Ding JB
  Title
Cholinergic modulation of synaptic integration and dendritic excitability in the striatum.
  Journal
Curr Opin Neurobiol 21:425-32 (2011)
DOI:10.1016/j.conb.2011.04.004
Reference
  Authors
Lanzafame AA, Christopoulos A, Mitchelson F
  Title
Cellular signaling mechanisms for muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.
  Journal
Receptors Channels 9:241-60 (2003)
DOI:10.3109/10606820308263
Reference
  Authors
Brown DA
  Title
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) in the nervous system: some functions and mechanisms.
  Journal
J Mol Neurosci 41:340-6 (2010)
DOI:10.1007/s12031-010-9377-2
Reference
  Authors
Chang KT, Berg DK
  Title
Voltage-gated channels block nicotinic regulation of CREB phosphorylation and gene expression in neurons.
  Journal
Neuron 32:855-65 (2001)
DOI:10.1016/S0896-6273(01)00516-5
Reference
  Authors
Soreq H, Seidman S
  Title
Acetylcholinesterase--new roles for an old actor.
  Journal
Nat Rev Neurosci 2:294-302 (2001)
DOI:10.1038/35067589
Reference
  Authors
Sharma G, Vijayaraghavan S
  Title
Nicotinic receptor signaling in nonexcitable cells.
  Journal
J Neurobiol 53:524-34 (2002)
DOI:10.1002/neu.10114
Reference
  Authors
Araque A, Martin ED, Perea G, Arellano JI, Buno W
  Title
Synaptically released acetylcholine evokes Ca2+ elevations in astrocytes in hippocampal slices.
  Journal
J Neurosci 22:2443-50 (2002)
DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.22-07-02443.2002
Reference
  Authors
Lucas-Meunier E, Fossier P, Baux G, Amar M
  Title
Cholinergic modulation of the cortical neuronal network.
  Journal
Pflugers Arch 446:17-29 (2003)
DOI:10.1007/s00424-002-0999-2
Reference
  Authors
Abreu-Villaca Y, Filgueiras CC, Manhaes AC
  Title
Developmental aspects of the cholinergic system.
  Journal
Behav Brain Res 221:367-78 (2011)
DOI:10.1016/j.bbr.2009.12.049
Related
pathway
mna00564  Glycerophospholipid metabolism
mna04010  MAPK signaling pathway
mna04020  Calcium signaling pathway
mna04721  Synaptic vesicle cycle
mna04975  Fat digestion and absorption
KO pathway
ko04725   
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