KEGG   PATHWAY: ray04270
ray04270                    Pathway                                

Vascular smooth muscle contraction - Rousettus aegyptiacus (Egyptian rousette)
The vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) is a highly specialized cell whose principal function is contraction. On contraction, VSMCs shorten, thereby decreasing the diameter of a blood vessel to regulate the blood flow and pressure.
The principal mechanisms that regulate the contractile state of VSMCs are changes in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]c). In response to vasoconstrictor stimuli, Ca2+ is mobilized from intracellular stores and/or the extracellular space to increase [Ca2+]c in VSMCs. The increase in [Ca2+]c, in turn, activates the Ca2+-CaM-MLCK pathway and stimulates MLC20 phosphorylation, leading to myosin-actin interactions and, hence, the development of contractile force. The sensitivity of contractile myofilaments or MLC20 phosphorylation to Ca2+ can be secondarily modulated by other signaling pathways. During receptor stimulation, the contractile force is greatly enhanced by the inhibition of myosin phosphatase. Rho/Rho kinase, PKC, and arachidonic acid have been proposed to play a pivotal role in this enhancement.
The signaling events that mediate relaxation include the removal of a contractile agonist (passive relaxation) and activation of cyclic nucleotide-dependent signaling pathways in the continued presence of a contractile agonist (active relaxation). Active relaxation occurs through the inhibition of both Ca2+ mobilization and myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity in VSMCs.
Organismal Systems; Circulatory system
Pathway map
ray04270  Vascular smooth muscle contraction

Other DBs
GO: 0014829
Rousettus aegyptiacus (Egyptian rousette) [GN:ray]
107515454  ADRA1A; alpha-1A adrenergic receptor isoform X1 [KO:K04135]
107521889  ADRA1B; alpha-1B adrenergic receptor [KO:K04136]
107505691  ADRA1D; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: alpha-1D adrenergic receptor [KO:K04137]
107520073  AGT; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: angiotensinogen [KO:K09821]
107513418  AGTR1; type-1 angiotensin II receptor [KO:K04166]
107515476  EDN1; endothelin-1 [KO:K16366]
107508285  EDN2; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: endothelin-2 [KO:K16367]
107503413  EDN3; endothelin-3 [KO:K05227]
107517774  EDNRA; endothelin-1 receptor [KO:K04197]
107514976  AVP; vasopressin-neurophysin 2-copeptin [KO:K05242]
107508214  AVPR1A; vasopressin V1a receptor [KO:K04226]
107508975  AVPR1B; vasopressin V1b receptor [KO:K04227]
107517194  GNAQ; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(q) subunit alpha [KO:K04634]
107520124  GNA11; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit alpha-11 [KO:K04635]
107508827  PLA2G12A; group XIIA secretory phospholipase A2 [KO:K01047] [EC:]
107502506  PLA2G10; group 10 secretory phospholipase A2 [KO:K01047] [EC:]
107516857  PLA2G12B; group XIIB secretory phospholipase A2-like protein isoform X1 [KO:K01047] [EC:]
107521019  PLA2G3; group 3 secretory phospholipase A2 [KO:K01047] [EC:]
107501225  PLA2G1B; phospholipase A2 [KO:K01047] [EC:]
107501776  PLA2G2D; group IID secretory phospholipase A2 [KO:K01047] [EC:]
107501788  PLA2G2F; group IIF secretory phospholipase A2 [KO:K01047] [EC:]
107501789  PLA2G2E; group IIE secretory phospholipase A2 [KO:K01047] [EC:]
107501790  PLA2G2A; phospholipase A2, membrane associated [KO:K01047] [EC:]
107501847  PLA2G2C; putative inactive group IIC secretory phospholipase A2 [KO:K01047] [EC:]
107501853  PLA2G5; calcium-dependent phospholipase A2 isoform X1 [KO:K01047] [EC:]
107514503  cytosolic phospholipase A2 beta-like isoform X1 [KO:K16342] [EC:]
107521615  PLA2G4A; cytosolic phospholipase A2 [KO:K16342] [EC:]
107510914  PLA2G4E; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: cytosolic phospholipase A2 epsilon [KO:K16342] [EC:]
107510922  LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: cytosolic phospholipase A2 beta-like [KO:K16342] [EC:]
107510924  PLA2G4F; cytosolic phospholipase A2 zeta [KO:K16342] [EC:]
107510925  PLA2G4D; cytosolic phospholipase A2 delta [KO:K16342] [EC:]
107519256  PLA2G6; 85/88 kDa calcium-independent phospholipase A2 isoform X1 [KO:K16343] [EC:]
107514040  LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: cytochrome P450 4A6 [KO:K07425] [EC:]
107518064  KCNMA1; calcium-activated potassium channel subunit alpha-1 isoform X1 [KO:K04936]
107515946  KCNU1; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: potassium channel subfamily U member 1 [KO:K05274]
107518473  KCNMB1; calcium-activated potassium channel subunit beta-1 [KO:K04937]
107517571  KCNMB2; calcium-activated potassium channel subunit beta-2 [KO:K04938]
107518045  KCNMB3; calcium-activated potassium channel subunit beta-3 isoform X1 [KO:K04939]
107514514  KCNMB4; calcium-activated potassium channel subunit beta-4 [KO:K04941]
107500540  CACNA1C; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1C [KO:K04850]
107516535  CACNA1D; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1D [KO:K04851]
107514999  CACNA1F; voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1F isoform X1 [KO:K04853]
107513628  CACNA1S; voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1S [KO:K04857]
107509556  CALM2; calmodulin [KO:K02183]
107508927  CALML4; calmodulin-like protein 4 isoform X1 [KO:K02183]
107515457  CALM1; calmodulin [KO:K02183]
107516034  CALM3; calmodulin [KO:K02183]
107501627  calmodulin-like protein 5 [KO:K02183]
107516607  MYLK4; myosin light chain kinase family member 4 isoform X1 [KO:K00907] [EC:]
107512864  MYLK2; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: myosin light chain kinase 2, skeletal/cardiac muscle [KO:K00907] [EC:]
107518034  MYLK; myosin light chain kinase, smooth muscle isoform X1 [KO:K00907] [EC:]
107521249  MYL6; myosin light polypeptide 6 isoform X1 [KO:K12751]
107521248  MYL6B; myosin light chain 6B [KO:K12751]
107512613  MYL9; myosin regulatory light polypeptide 9 [KO:K12755]
107500388  MYH14; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: myosin-14 [KO:K10352]
107515660  MYH10; myosin-10 isoform X1 [KO:K10352]
107516819  MYH11; myosin-11 isoform X1 [KO:K10352]
107519230  MYH9; myosin-9 [KO:K10352]
107506114  PLCB1; 1-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase beta-1 isoform X1 [KO:K05858] [EC:]
107519930  PLCB4; 1-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase beta-4 isoform X1 [KO:K05858] [EC:]
107497081  PLCB3; 1-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase beta-3 isoform X1 [KO:K05858] [EC:]
107514464  PLCB2; 1-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase beta-2 isoform X1 [KO:K05858] [EC:]
107504134  ITPR1; inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 isoform X1 [KO:K04958]
107497427  ITPR2; inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 2 isoform X1 [KO:K04959]
107511965  ITPR3; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 3 [KO:K04960]
107510307  PRKCA; protein kinase C alpha type isoform X1 [KO:K02677] [EC:]
107516091  PRKCB; protein kinase C beta type isoform X1 [KO:K19662] [EC:]
107503061  PRKCG; protein kinase C gamma type isoform X1 [KO:K19663] [EC:]
107516555  PRKCD; protein kinase C delta type isoform X1 [KO:K06068] [EC:]
107509571  PRKCE; protein kinase C epsilon type isoform X1 [KO:K18050] [EC:]
107519569  PRKCH; protein kinase C eta type [KO:K18051] [EC:]
107505977  PRKCQ; protein kinase C theta type isoform X1 [KO:K18052] [EC:]
107509353  ARAF; serine/threonine-protein kinase A-Raf isoform X1 [KO:K08845] [EC:]
107504052  BRAF; serine/threonine-protein kinase B-raf isoform X1 [KO:K04365] [EC:]
107519729  RAF1; RAF proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase [KO:K04366] [EC:]
107508942  MAP2K1; dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 isoform X1 [KO:K04368] [EC:]
107510634  MAP2K2; dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2 isoform X1 [KO:K04369] [EC:]
107515836  MAPK3; mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 isoform X1 [KO:K04371] [EC:]
107497830  MAPK1; mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 [KO:K04371] [EC:]
107510528  CALD1; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: caldesmon [KO:K12327]
107502214  ACTA2; actin, aortic smooth muscle [KO:K12313]
107502939  ACTG2; actin, gamma-enteric smooth muscle [KO:K12315]
107520981  PPP1R14A; protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 14A [KO:K12328]
107511165  PPP1CB; serine/threonine-protein phosphatase PP1-beta catalytic subunit [KO:K06269] [EC:]
107503728  PPP1CA; serine/threonine-protein phosphatase PP1-alpha catalytic subunit [KO:K06269] [EC:]
107513247  PPP1CC; serine/threonine-protein phosphatase PP1-gamma catalytic subunit [KO:K06269] [EC:]
107503696  PPP1R12A; protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 12A isoform X1 [KO:K06270]
107515441  PPP1R12C; protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 12C isoform X1 [KO:K17457]
107521430  GNA12; guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit alpha-12 [KO:K04346]
107510298  GNA13; guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit alpha-13 [KO:K04639]
107513342  ARHGEF12; rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 12 [KO:K07532]
107502587  ARHGEF1; rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 1 isoform X1 [KO:K12330]
107521452  ARHGEF11; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 11 [KO:K12331]
107513350  RHOA; transforming protein RhoA [KO:K04513]
107520580  ROCK1; rho-associated protein kinase 1 [KO:K04514] [EC:]
107501194  ROCK2; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: rho-associated protein kinase 2 [KO:K17388] [EC:]
107500692  ADORA2A; adenosine receptor A2a [KO:K04266]
107511058  ADORA2B; adenosine receptor A2b [KO:K04267]
107516039  PTGIR; prostacyclin receptor isoform X1 [KO:K04263]
107508019  calcitonin receptor-stimulating peptide 3-like [KO:K12332]
107508021  CALCB; calcitonin gene-related peptide 2 isoform X1 [KO:K12332]
107512141  ADM; ADM [KO:K12333]
107513669  CALCRL; calcitonin gene-related peptide type 1 receptor [KO:K04577]
107510600  RAMP1; receptor activity-modifying protein 1 [KO:K08447]
107513840  RAMP2; receptor activity-modifying protein 2 [KO:K08448]
107500068  neuroendocrine secretory protein 55-like [KO:K04632]
107500067  GNAS; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(s) subunit alpha isoform X1 [KO:K04632]
107512406  ADCY1; adenylate cyclase type 1 [KO:K08041] [EC:]
107502700  ADCY2; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: adenylate cyclase type 2 [KO:K08042] [EC:]
107498506  ADCY3; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: adenylate cyclase type 3 [KO:K08043] [EC:]
107498014  ADCY4; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: adenylate cyclase type 4 [KO:K08044] [EC:]
107518038  ADCY5; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: adenylate cyclase type 5 [KO:K08045] [EC:]
107514224  ADCY6; adenylate cyclase type 6 isoform X1 [KO:K08046] [EC:]
107512248  ADCY7; adenylate cyclase type 7 isoform X1 [KO:K08047] [EC:]
107497689  ADCY8; adenylate cyclase type 8 isoform X1 [KO:K08048] [EC:]
107521680  ADCY9; adenylate cyclase type 9 [KO:K08049] [EC:]
107519437  PRKACA; cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit alpha [KO:K04345] [EC:]
107511590  PRKACB; cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit beta isoform X1 [KO:K04345] [EC:]
107509091  NPR1; atrial natriuretic peptide receptor 1 [KO:K12323] [EC:]
107504944  NPPC; C-type natriuretic peptide [KO:K12336]
107502774  NPR2; atrial natriuretic peptide receptor 2 isoform X1 [KO:K12324] [EC:]
107515478  PRKG1; cGMP-dependent protein kinase 1 isoform X1 [KO:K07376] [EC:]
107512136  MRVI1; protein MRVI1 isoform X1 [KO:K12337]
107507549  GUCY1A3; guanylate cyclase soluble subunit alpha-3 [KO:K12318] [EC:]
107518221  GUCY1A2; guanylate cyclase soluble subunit alpha-2 [KO:K12318] [EC:]
107507550  GUCY1B3; guanylate cyclase soluble subunit beta-1 isoform X1 [KO:K12319] [EC:]
107509998  guanylate cyclase soluble subunit beta-2-like [KO:K12319] [EC:]
C00076  Calcium cation
C00165  Diacylglycerol
C00212  Adenosine
C00219  Arachidonate
C00238  Potassium cation
C00533  Nitric oxide
C00547  L-Noradrenaline
C00575  3',5'-Cyclic AMP
C00942  3',5'-Cyclic GMP
C01245  D-myo-Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate
C01312  Prostaglandin I2
C14748  20-HETE
C14768  5,6-EET
C14769  8,9-EET
C14770  11,12-EET
C14771  14,15-EET
Akata T
Cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating vascular tone. Part 2: regulatory mechanisms modulating Ca2+ mobilization and/or myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity in vascular smooth muscle cells.
J Anesth 21:232-42 (2007)
Ogut O, Brozovich FV
Regulation of force in vascular smooth muscle.
J Mol Cell Cardiol 35:347-55 (2003)
Hilgers RH, Webb RC
Molecular aspects of arterial smooth muscle contraction: focus on Rho.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 230:829-35 (2005)
Schlossmann J, Feil R, Hofmann F
Signaling through NO and cGMP-dependent protein kinases.
Ann Med 35:21-7 (2003)
Mehta PK, Griendling KK
Angiotensin II cell signaling: physiological and pathological effects in the cardiovascular system.
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 292:C82-97 (2007)
Kim HR, Appel S, Vetterkind S, Gangopadhyay SS, Morgan KG
Smooth muscle signalling pathways in health and disease.
J Cell Mol Med 12:2165-80 (2008)
Fukata Y, Amano M, Kaibuchi K
Rho-Rho-kinase pathway in smooth muscle contraction and cytoskeletal reorganization of non-muscle cells.
Trends Pharmacol Sci 22:32-9 (2001)
Dimopoulos GJ, Semba S, Kitazawa K, Eto M, Kitazawa T
Ca2+-dependent rapid Ca2+ sensitization of contraction in arterial smooth muscle.
Circ Res 100:121-9 (2007)
Hynynen MM, Khalil RA
The vascular endothelin system in hypertension--recent patents and discoveries.
Recent Pat Cardiovasc Drug Discov 1:95-108 (2006)
Brain SD, Grant AD
Vascular actions of calcitonin gene-related peptide and adrenomedullin.
Physiol Rev 84:903-34 (2004)
Roman RJ
P-450 metabolites of arachidonic acid in the control of cardiovascular function.
Physiol Rev 82:131-85 (2002)
Surks HK
cGMP-dependent protein kinase I and smooth muscle relaxation: a tale of two isoforms.
Circ Res 101:1078-80 (2007)
Vanhoutte PM
Endothelium-dependent hyperpolarizations: the history.
Pharmacol Res 49:503-8 (2004)
Davis MJ, Hill MA
Signaling mechanisms underlying the vascular myogenic response.
Physiol Rev 79:387-423 (1999)
Fleming I.
Cytochrome p450 and vascular homeostasis.
Circ Res 89:753-62 (2001)
Carvajal JA, Germain AM, Huidobro-Toro JP, Weiner CP
Molecular mechanism of cGMP-mediated smooth muscle relaxation.
Ko EA, Han J, Jung ID, Park WS
Physiological roles of K+ channels in vascular smooth muscle cells.
J Smooth Muscle Res 44:65-81 (2008)
Woodard GE, Rosado JA
Natriuretic peptides in vascular physiology and pathology.
Int Rev Cell Mol Biol 268:59-93 (2008)
Berry C, Touyz R, Dominiczak AF, Webb RC, Johns DG
Angiotensin receptors: signaling, vascular pathophysiology, and interactions with ceramide.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 281:H2337-65 (2001)
Hirano K, Hirano M, Kanaide H
Regulation of myosin phosphorylation and myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity in vascular smooth muscle.
J Smooth Muscle Res 40:219-36 (2004)
Freeman EJ, Ruehr ML, Dorman RV
ANG II-induced translocation of cytosolic PLA2 to the nucleus in vascular smooth muscle cells.
Am J Physiol 274:C282-8 (1998)
Murphy TV, Spurrell BE, Hill MA
Cellular signalling in arteriolar myogenic constriction: involvement of tyrosine phosphorylation pathways.
Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 29:612-9 (2002)
ray00590  Arachidonic acid metabolism
ray04020  Calcium signaling pathway
KO pathway

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