KEGG   PATHWAY: ray04725
Entry
ray04725                    Pathway                                

Name
Cholinergic synapse - Rousettus aegyptiacus (Egyptian rousette)
Description
Acetylcholine (ACh) is a neurotransmitter widely distributed in the central (and also peripheral, autonomic and enteric) nervous system (CNS). In the CNS, ACh facilitates many functions, such as learning, memory, attention and motor control. When released in the synaptic cleft, ACh binds to two distinct types of receptors: Ionotropic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) and metabotropic muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs). The activation of nAChR by ACh leads to the rapid influx of Na+ and Ca2+ and subsequent cellular depolarization. Activation of mAChRs is relatively slow (milliseconds to seconds) and, depending on the subtypes present (M1-M5), they directly alter cellular homeostasis of phospholipase C, inositol trisphosphate, cAMP, and free calcium. In the cleft, ACh may also be hydrolyzed by acetylcholinesterase (AChE) into choline and acetate. The choline derived from ACh hydrolysis is recovered by a presynaptic high-affinity choline transporter (CHT).
Class
Organismal Systems; Nervous system
Pathway map
ray04725  Cholinergic synapse
ray04725

Other DBs
GO: 0032222
Organism
Rousettus aegyptiacus (Egyptian rousette) [GN:ray]
Gene
107508908  CHAT; choline O-acetyltransferase [KO:K00623] [EC:2.3.1.6]
107500005  ACHE; acetylcholinesterase isoform X1 [KO:K01049] [EC:3.1.1.7]
107508903  SLC18A3; vesicular acetylcholine transporter [KO:K14636]
107501614  CHRM1; muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1 [KO:K04129]
107502405  CHRM3; muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3 [KO:K04131]
107518787  CHRM5; muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M5 [KO:K04133]
107517194  GNAQ; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(q) subunit alpha [KO:K04634]
107520124  GNA11; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit alpha-11 [KO:K04635]
107506114  PLCB1; 1-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase beta-1 isoform X1 [KO:K05858] [EC:3.1.4.11]
107519930  PLCB4; 1-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase beta-4 isoform X1 [KO:K05858] [EC:3.1.4.11]
107497081  PLCB3; 1-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase beta-3 isoform X1 [KO:K05858] [EC:3.1.4.11]
107514464  PLCB2; 1-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase beta-2 isoform X1 [KO:K05858] [EC:3.1.4.11]
107504134  ITPR1; inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 isoform X1 [KO:K04958]
107497427  ITPR2; inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 2 isoform X1 [KO:K04959]
107511965  ITPR3; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 3 [KO:K04960]
107510307  PRKCA; protein kinase C alpha type isoform X1 [KO:K02677] [EC:2.7.11.13]
107516091  PRKCB; protein kinase C beta type isoform X1 [KO:K19662] [EC:2.7.11.13]
107503061  PRKCG; protein kinase C gamma type isoform X1 [KO:K19663] [EC:2.7.11.13]
107503177  KCNQ1; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily KQT member 1 [KO:K04926]
107505780  KCNQ2; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily KQT member 2 [KO:K04927]
107504083  KCNQ3; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily KQT member 3 [KO:K04928]
107508311  KCNQ4; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily KQT member 4 [KO:K04929]
107509262  KCNQ5; potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily KQT member 5 [KO:K04930]
107510275  KCNJ2; inward rectifier potassium channel 2 isoform X1 [KO:K04996]
107506758  KCNJ12; ATP-sensitive inward rectifier potassium channel 12 [KO:K05005]
107519298  KCNJ4; inward rectifier potassium channel 4 [KO:K04998]
107498866  KCNJ14; ATP-sensitive inward rectifier potassium channel 14 [KO:K05007]
107499062  CHRM2; muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 [KO:K04130]
107511865  CHRM4; muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M4 [KO:K04132]
107516134  GNAI3; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(k) subunit alpha [KO:K04630]
107518173  GNAI1; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(i) subunit alpha-1 [KO:K04630]
107513376  GNAI2; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(i) subunit alpha-2 [KO:K04630]
107499654  GNAO1; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(o) subunit alpha isoform X1 [KO:K04534]
107510694  GNB1; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(T) subunit beta-1 [KO:K04536]
107500009  GNB2; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(T) subunit beta-2 [KO:K04537]
107519797  GNB3; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(T) subunit beta-3 [KO:K07825]
107518411  GNB4; guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit beta-4 [KO:K04538]
107519728  GNB5; guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit beta-5 isoform X1 [KO:K04539]
107498117  GNG2; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-2 [KO:K07826]
107501581  GNG3; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-3 [KO:K04540]
107520069  GNG4; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-4 [KO:K04541]
107511584  GNG5; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-5 [KO:K04542]
107520101  GNG7; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-7 [KO:K04543]
107516040  GNG8; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-8 [KO:K04544]
107502631  GNG10; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-10 [KO:K04545]
107518824  GNG11; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-11 [KO:K04546]
107519408  guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-7-like [KO:K04347]
107520565  GNG12; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-12 [KO:K04347]
107506102  GNG13; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-13 isoform X1 [KO:K04547]
107518812  GNGT1; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(T) subunit gamma-T1 [KO:K04548]
107517574  GNGT2; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-T2 [KO:K04549]
107521176  KCNJ3; G protein-activated inward rectifier potassium channel 1 isoform X1 [KO:K04997]
107499288  KCNJ6; G protein-activated inward rectifier potassium channel 2 isoform X1 [KO:K05000]
107511488  PIK3CG; phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit gamma isoform isoform X1 [KO:K21289] [EC:2.7.1.153]
107515658  PIK3R5; phosphoinositide 3-kinase regulatory subunit 5 isoform X1 [KO:K21290]
107515659  PIK3R6; phosphoinositide 3-kinase regulatory subunit 6 isoform X1 [KO:K21290]
107507127  HRAS; GTPase HRas isoform X1 [KO:K02833]
107497434  KRAS; GTPase KRas isoform X1 [KO:K07827]
107499847  NRAS; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: GTPase NRas [KO:K07828]
107508942  MAP2K1; dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 isoform X1 [KO:K04368] [EC:2.7.12.2]
107515836  MAPK3; mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 isoform X1 [KO:K04371] [EC:2.7.11.24]
107497830  MAPK1; mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 [KO:K04371] [EC:2.7.11.24]
107498912  FOS; proto-oncogene c-Fos [KO:K04379]
107515755  LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-7-like [KO:K04809]
107505776  CHRNA4; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4 [KO:K04806]
107504717  CHRNB2; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit beta-2 [KO:K04813]
107500527  CHRNA3; neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-3 [KO:K04805]
107500529  CHRNB4; neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit beta-4 [KO:K04815]
107501325  CHRNA6; neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-6 [KO:K04808]
107512406  ADCY1; adenylate cyclase type 1 [KO:K08041] [EC:4.6.1.1]
107502700  ADCY2; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: adenylate cyclase type 2 [KO:K08042] [EC:4.6.1.1]
107498506  ADCY3; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: adenylate cyclase type 3 [KO:K08043] [EC:4.6.1.1]
107498014  ADCY4; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: adenylate cyclase type 4 [KO:K08044] [EC:4.6.1.1]
107518038  ADCY5; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: adenylate cyclase type 5 [KO:K08045] [EC:4.6.1.1]
107514224  ADCY6; adenylate cyclase type 6 isoform X1 [KO:K08046] [EC:4.6.1.1]
107512248  ADCY7; adenylate cyclase type 7 isoform X1 [KO:K08047] [EC:4.6.1.1]
107497689  ADCY8; adenylate cyclase type 8 isoform X1 [KO:K08048] [EC:4.6.1.1]
107521680  ADCY9; adenylate cyclase type 9 [KO:K08049] [EC:4.6.1.1]
107519437  PRKACA; cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit alpha [KO:K04345] [EC:2.7.11.11]
107511590  PRKACB; cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit beta isoform X1 [KO:K04345] [EC:2.7.11.11]
107505169  CREB1; cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 1 isoform X1 [KO:K05870]
107500816  ATF4; cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-4 [KO:K04374]
107509179  CREB3L4; cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 3-like protein 4 [KO:K09048]
107502779  CREB3; cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 3 [KO:K09048]
107511864  CREB3L1; cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 3-like protein 1 [KO:K09048]
107510647  CREB3L3; cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 3-like protein 3 isoform X1 [KO:K09048]
107499057  CREB3L2; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 3-like protein 2 [KO:K09048]
107505683  CREB5; cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 5 [KO:K09047]
107510894  CAMK2D; calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II subunit delta isoform X1 [KO:K04515] [EC:2.7.11.17]
107512385  CAMK2B; calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II subunit beta isoform X1 [KO:K04515] [EC:2.7.11.17]
107497167  CAMK2A; calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II subunit alpha isoform X1 [KO:K04515] [EC:2.7.11.17]
107498266  CAMK2G; calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II subunit gamma isoform X1 [KO:K04515] [EC:2.7.11.17]
107506545  CAMK4; calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type IV [KO:K05869] [EC:2.7.11.17]
107507294  JAK2; tyrosine-protein kinase JAK2 [KO:K04447] [EC:2.7.10.2]
107506307  FYN; tyrosine-protein kinase Fyn isoform X1 [KO:K05703] [EC:2.7.10.2]
107520152  PIK3CD; phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit delta isoform isoform X1 [KO:K00922] [EC:2.7.1.153]
107517828  PIK3CA; phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha isoform [KO:K00922] [EC:2.7.1.153]
107513958  PIK3CB; phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit beta isoform isoform X1 [KO:K00922] [EC:2.7.1.153]
107521668  PIK3R2; phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulatory subunit beta isoform X1 [KO:K02649]
107517899  PIK3R3; phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulatory subunit gamma isoform X1 [KO:K02649]
107498704  PIK3R1; phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulatory subunit alpha isoform X1 [KO:K02649]
107513978  AKT3; RAC-gamma serine/threonine-protein kinase isoform X1 [KO:K04456] [EC:2.7.11.1]
107521783  AKT2; RAC-beta serine/threonine-protein kinase [KO:K04456] [EC:2.7.11.1]
107498395  AKT1; RAC-alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase [KO:K04456] [EC:2.7.11.1]
107503915  BCL2; apoptosis regulator Bcl-2 isoform X1 [KO:K02161]
107519399  CACNA1A; voltage-dependent P/Q-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1A isoform X1 [KO:K04344]
107505355  CACNA1B; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: voltage-dependent N-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1B [KO:K04849]
107500540  CACNA1C; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1C [KO:K04850]
107516535  CACNA1D; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1D [KO:K04851]
107514999  CACNA1F; voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1F isoform X1 [KO:K04853]
107513628  CACNA1S; voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1S [KO:K04857]
107499269  SLC5A7; high affinity choline transporter 1 [KO:K14387]
Compound
C00010  CoA
C00024  Acetyl-CoA
C00033  Acetate
C00076  Calcium cation
C00114  Choline
C00165  Diacylglycerol
C00238  Potassium cation
C00575  3',5'-Cyclic AMP
C01245  D-myo-Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate
C01330  Sodium cation
C01996  Acetylcholine
C04637  1-Phosphatidyl-D-myo-inositol 4,5-bisphosphate
Reference
  Authors
Nestler EJ, Hyman SE, Malenka RC.
  Title
Molecular neuropharmacology: A foundation for clinical neuroscience
  Journal
The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. (2001)
Reference
  Authors
Nicholls JG, Martin AR, Wallace BG, Fuchs PA.
  Title
From neuron to brain, 4th ed.
  Journal
Sunderland, MA: Sinauer associates (2001)
Reference
  Authors
Dajas-Bailador F, Wonnacott S
  Title
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and the regulation of neuronal signalling.
  Journal
Trends Pharmacol Sci 25:317-24 (2004)
DOI:10.1016/j.tips.2004.04.006
Reference
  Authors
Resende RR, Adhikari A
  Title
Cholinergic receptor pathways involved in apoptosis, cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation.
  Journal
Cell Commun Signal 7:20 (2009)
DOI:10.1186/1478-811X-7-20
Reference
  Authors
Origlia N, Kuczewski N, Pesavento E, Aztiria E, Domenici L
  Title
The role of cholinergic system in neuronal plasticity: focus on visual cortex and muscarinic receptors.
  Journal
Arch Ital Biol 146:165-88 (2008)
Reference
  Authors
Oldenburg IA, Ding JB
  Title
Cholinergic modulation of synaptic integration and dendritic excitability in the striatum.
  Journal
Curr Opin Neurobiol 21:425-32 (2011)
DOI:10.1016/j.conb.2011.04.004
Reference
  Authors
Lanzafame AA, Christopoulos A, Mitchelson F
  Title
Cellular signaling mechanisms for muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.
  Journal
Receptors Channels 9:241-60 (2003)
DOI:10.3109/10606820308263
Reference
  Authors
Brown DA
  Title
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) in the nervous system: some functions and mechanisms.
  Journal
J Mol Neurosci 41:340-6 (2010)
DOI:10.1007/s12031-010-9377-2
Reference
  Authors
Chang KT, Berg DK
  Title
Voltage-gated channels block nicotinic regulation of CREB phosphorylation and gene expression in neurons.
  Journal
Neuron 32:855-65 (2001)
DOI:10.1016/S0896-6273(01)00516-5
Reference
  Authors
Soreq H, Seidman S
  Title
Acetylcholinesterase--new roles for an old actor.
  Journal
Nat Rev Neurosci 2:294-302 (2001)
DOI:10.1038/35067589
Reference
  Authors
Sharma G, Vijayaraghavan S
  Title
Nicotinic receptor signaling in nonexcitable cells.
  Journal
J Neurobiol 53:524-34 (2002)
DOI:10.1002/neu.10114
Reference
  Authors
Araque A, Martin ED, Perea G, Arellano JI, Buno W
  Title
Synaptically released acetylcholine evokes Ca2+ elevations in astrocytes in hippocampal slices.
  Journal
J Neurosci 22:2443-50 (2002)
DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.22-07-02443.2002
Reference
  Authors
Lucas-Meunier E, Fossier P, Baux G, Amar M
  Title
Cholinergic modulation of the cortical neuronal network.
  Journal
Pflugers Arch 446:17-29 (2003)
DOI:10.1007/s00424-002-0999-2
Reference
  Authors
Abreu-Villaca Y, Filgueiras CC, Manhaes AC
  Title
Developmental aspects of the cholinergic system.
  Journal
Behav Brain Res 221:367-78 (2011)
DOI:10.1016/j.bbr.2009.12.049
Related
pathway
ray00564  Glycerophospholipid metabolism
ray04010  MAPK signaling pathway
ray04020  Calcium signaling pathway
ray04721  Synaptic vesicle cycle
ray04975  Fat digestion and absorption
KO pathway
ko04725   
LinkDB

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