KEGG   PATHWAY: pon05206
pon05206                    Pathway                                

MicroRNAs in cancer - Pongo abelii (Sumatran orangutan)
MicroRNA (miRNA) is a cluster of small non-encoding RNA molecules of 21 - 23 nucleotides in length, which controls gene expression post-transcriptionally either via the degradation of target mRNAs or the inhibition of protein translation. Using high-throughput profiling, dysregulation of miRNAs has been widely observed in different stages of cancer. The upregulation (overexpression) of specific miRNAs could lead to the repression of tumor suppressor gene expression, and conversely the downregulation of specific miRNAs could result in an increase of oncogene expression; both these situations induce subsequent malignant effects on cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis that lead to tumor growth and progress. The miRNA signatures of cancer observed in various studies differ significantly. These inconsistencies occur due to the differences in the study populations and methodologies used. This pathway map shows the summarized results from various studies in 9 cancers, each of which is presented in a review article.
Human Diseases; Cancer: overview
Pathway map
pon05206  MicroRNAs in cancer

Pongo abelii (Sumatran orangutan) [GN:pon]
100171828  PTEN; phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate 3-phosphatase and dual-specificity protein phosphatase PTEN [KO:K01110] [EC:]
100449905  CDKN1B; cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B [KO:K06624]
100440197  TIMP3; metalloproteinase inhibitor 3 [KO:K16866]
100462513  KRAS; GTPase KRas isoform X1 [KO:K07827]
100454924  CDK6; cyclin-dependent kinase 6 [KO:K02091] [EC:]
100460228  CDC25A; M-phase inducer phosphatase 1 isoform X3 [KO:K06645] [EC:]
100434256  CDC25B; M-phase inducer phosphatase 2 isoform X1 [KO:K05866] [EC:]
100451443  CDC25C; M-phase inducer phosphatase 3 isoform X1 [KO:K05867] [EC:]
100436170  HMGA2; high mobility group protein HMGI-C isoform X2 [KO:K09283]
100171625  CCND1; G1/S-specific cyclin-D1 [KO:K04503]
100457978  CCND2; G1/S-specific cyclin-D2 [KO:K10151]
100438282  CCNE2; G1/S-specific cyclin-E2 isoform X1 [KO:K06626]
100461587  CCNE1; G1/S-specific cyclin-E1 isoform X1 [KO:K06626]
100452410  CRK; adapter molecule crk isoform X1 [KO:K04438]
100443298  CRKL; crk-like protein [KO:K04438]
100458256  HDAC5; histone deacetylase 5 isoform X1 [KO:K11406] [EC:]
100440788  HDAC4; histone deacetylase 4 isoform X1 [KO:K11406] [EC:]
100432353  FOXP1; forkhead box protein P1 isoform X7 [KO:K23582]
100461844  PIM1; serine/threonine-protein kinase pim-1 [KO:K04702] [EC:]
100137030  MET; hepatocyte growth factor receptor precursor [KO:K05099] [EC:]
100459471  DNMT3A; DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 3A isoform X1 [KO:K17398] [EC:]
100459992  DNMT3B; DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 3B isoform X1 [KO:K17399] [EC:]
100436188  MCL1; induced myeloid leukemia cell differentiation protein Mcl-1 isoform X1 [KO:K02539]
100442963  bcl-2-like protein 2 isoform X3 [KO:K02163]
100459280  EGFR; epidermal growth factor receptor isoform X2 [KO:K04361] [EC:]
100448769  VEGFA; vascular endothelial growth factor A isoform X1 [KO:K05448]
100171534  ZEB1; zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 1 [KO:K09299]
100461291  TGFB2; transforming growth factor beta-2 isoform X1 [KO:K13376]
100458178  EZR; ezrin isoform X1 [KO:K08007]
100173014  PDCD4; programmed cell death protein 4 [KO:K16865]
100455260  EP300; histone acetyltransferase p300 isoform X2 [KO:K04498] [EC:]
100445634  CREBBP; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: CREB-binding protein [KO:K04498] [EC:]
100172445  TPM1; tropomyosin alpha-1 chain [KO:K10373]
100173576  SPRY2; protein sprouty homolog 2 [KO:K17383]
100938429  BCL2; apoptosis regulator Bcl-2 isoform X1 [KO:K02161]
100444556  SERPINB5; serpin B5 [KO:K10139]
100448596  ST14; suppressor of tumorigenicity 14 protein [KO:K08670] [EC:]
100172192  CYP1B1; cytochrome P450 1B1 [KO:K07410] [EC:]
100456786  MTOR; serine/threonine-protein kinase mTOR [KO:K07203] [EC:]
100434731  RPTOR; regulatory-associated protein of mTOR isoform X1 [KO:K07204]
100457433  1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) 24-hydroxylase, mitochondrial [KO:K07436] [EC:]
100450307  ERBB2; receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-2 isoform X1 [KO:K05083] [EC:]
100174431  ERBB3; receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-3 precursor [KO:K05084] [EC:]
100453216  ABL1; tyrosine-protein kinase ABL1 isoform X1 [KO:K06619] [EC:]
100444448  TP63; tumor protein 63 isoform X1 [KO:K10149]
100171900  ZEB2; zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 2 [KO:K23560]
100439960  FSCN1; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: fascin [KO:K23551]
103888520  RASSF1; ras association domain-containing protein 1 isoform X3 [KO:K09850]
100174239  HOXD10; homeobox protein Hox-D10 [KO:K09295]
100445736  DDIT4; DNA damage-inducible transcript 4 protein [KO:K08270]
100454976  BMF; bcl-2-modifying factor isoform X3 [KO:K17460]
100457556  PAK4; serine/threonine-protein kinase PAK 4 isoform X1 [KO:K05734] [EC:]
100455867  MMP9; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: matrix metalloproteinase-9 [KO:K01403] [EC:]
100459572  SLC7A1; high affinity cationic amino acid transporter 1 [KO:K13863]
100173395  CCNG1; cyclin-G1 [KO:K10145]
100173339  HMOX1; heme oxygenase 1 [KO:K00510] [EC:]
100435715  STMN1; stathmin [KO:K04381]
100171541  STAT3; signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 [KO:K04692]
100456735  MYC; myc proto-oncogene protein [KO:K04377]
100435491  CASP3; caspase-3 [KO:K02187] [EC:]
100459427  HRAS; GTPase HRas [KO:K02833]
100174317  NRAS; GTPase NRas precursor [KO:K07828]
100436978  DNMT1; DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 1 isoform X1 [KO:K00558] [EC:]
100431482  APC; adenomatous polyposis coli protein isoform X2 [KO:K02085]
100435472  APC2; adenomatous polyposis coli protein 2 isoform X1 [KO:K02085]
100442255  IRS1; insulin receptor substrate 1 [KO:K16172]
100174298  PIK3R3; phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulatory subunit gamma [KO:K02649]
100173589  PIK3R1; phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulatory subunit alpha [KO:K02649]
100437617  PIK3R2; phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulatory subunit beta [KO:K02649]
100451029  MAPK7; mitogen-activated protein kinase 7 isoform X1 [KO:K04464] [EC:]
100432846  PIK3CB; phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit beta isoform isoform X1 [KO:K00922] [EC:]
100453779  PIK3CA; phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha isoform [KO:K00922] [EC:]
103889133  PIK3CD; phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit delta isoform isoform X1 [KO:K00922] [EC:]
100173769  HNRNPK; heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K [KO:K12886]
100431403  RECK; reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with Kazal motifs isoform X1 [KO:K17461]
100448297  E2F3; transcription factor E2F3 isoform X3 [KO:K06620]
100452233  IRS2; insulin receptor substrate 2 [KO:K07187]
100449179  NOTCH1; neurogenic locus notch homolog protein 1 [KO:K02599]
100447628  NOTCH2; neurogenic locus notch homolog protein 2 isoform X1 [KO:K20994]
100454773  NOTCH3; neurogenic locus notch homolog protein 3 [KO:K20995]
100436768  NOTCH4; neurogenic locus notch homolog protein 4 [KO:K20996]
100173052  BMI1; polycomb complex protein BMI-1 [KO:K11459]
100447086  MMP16; matrix metalloproteinase-16 isoform X1 [KO:K07996] [EC:3.4.24.-]
100451505  ATM; serine-protein kinase ATM isoform X1 [KO:K04728] [EC:]
100445635  SOCS1; suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 [KO:K04694]
100172786  CD44; CD44 antigen precursor [KO:K06256]
100462160  DICER1; endoribonuclease Dicer isoform X1 [KO:K11592] [EC:3.1.26.-]
100457942  FZD3; frizzled-3 [KO:K02329]
100453984  ITGA5; integrin alpha-5 [KO:K06484]
100453730  RDX; radixin isoform X2 [KO:K05762]
100171605  RHOA; transforming protein RhoA precursor [KO:K04513]
100171578  PLAU; urokinase-type plasminogen activator precursor [KO:K01348] [EC:]
100460189  bcl-2 homologous antagonist/killer [KO:K14021]
100432001  BAK1; bcl-2 homologous antagonist/killer isoform X1 [KO:K14021]
100444744  ZFPM2; zinc finger protein ZFPM2 isoform X1 [KO:K17442]
100445345  ITGB3; integrin beta-3 [KO:K06493]
100454750  UBE2I; SUMO-conjugating enzyme UBC9 [KO:K10577]
100449029  SOX4; transcription factor SOX-4 [KO:K23581]
100451868  TNC; tenascin isoform X4 [KO:K06252]
100443502  TNXB; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: tenascin-X [KO:K06252]
100452638  TNR; tenascin-R isoform X1 [KO:K06252]
100453010  TNN; tenascin-N isoform X1 [KO:K06252]
100452463  ABCB1; multidrug resistance protein 1 [KO:K05658] [EC:]
100431822  ABCC1; multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 [KO:K05665] [EC:]
100439533  BRCA1; breast cancer type 1 susceptibility protein isoform X5 [KO:K10605] [EC:]
100453682  CDKN1A; cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 [KO:K06625]
100448360  EFNA1; ephrin-A1 [KO:K05462]
100448970  EFNA3; ephrin-A3 isoform X1 [KO:K05462]
100449916  EFNA4; ephrin-A4 isoform X2 [KO:K05462]
100451193  EFNA5; ephrin-A5 [KO:K05462]
112130075  EFNA2; ephrin-A2 [KO:K05462]
100453386  THBS1; thrombospondin-1 [KO:K16857]
100451737  IGF2BP1; insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 1 isoform X1 [KO:K17391]
100446303  TRIM71; E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase TRIM71 [KO:K12035] [EC:]
100461595  NFKB1; nuclear factor NF-kappa-B p105 subunit isoform X1 [KO:K02580]
100440586  IKBKB; inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase subunit beta isoform X3 [KO:K07209] [EC:]
100436566  PTGS2; prostaglandin G/H synthase 2 [KO:K11987] [EC:]
100169740  MAPK1; mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 isoform X1 [KO:K04371] [EC:]
100431824  MAPK3; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 [KO:K04371] [EC:]
100434355  PRKCA; protein kinase C alpha type isoform X1 [KO:K02677] [EC:]
100439900  PRKCB; protein kinase C beta type isoform X2 [KO:K19662] [EC:]
100451563  PRKCG; protein kinase C gamma type [KO:K19663] [EC:]
100173972  GRB2; growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 [KO:K04364]
100433126  FGFR3; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 [KO:K05094] [EC:]
100173967  RPS6KA5; ribosomal protein S6 kinase alpha-5 [KO:K04445] [EC:]
100435218  TP53; cellular tumor antigen p53 [KO:K04451]
100171532  MDM2; E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase Mdm2 [KO:K06643] [EC:]
100461293  MDM4; protein Mdm4 [KO:K10127]
100431735  PDGFRA; platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha [KO:K04363] [EC:]
100450941  PLCG1; 1-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase gamma-1 isoform X2 [KO:K01116] [EC:]
100457650  PLCG2; 1-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase gamma-2 [KO:K05859] [EC:]
100173732  RAF1; RAF proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase [KO:K04366] [EC:]
100446021  MAP2K1; dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 [KO:K04368] [EC:]
100450988  MAP2K2; dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2 [KO:K04369] [EC:]
100434331  SOS2; son of sevenless homolog 2 isoform X1 [KO:K03099]
100458733  SOS1; son of sevenless homolog 1 isoform X1 [KO:K03099]
100173225  SHC1; SHC-transforming protein 1 [KO:K06279]
100440212  PDGFA; platelet-derived growth factor subunit A isoform X1 [KO:K04359]
100431574  SHC4; SHC-transforming protein 4 [KO:K17449]
100460243  PDGFB; platelet-derived growth factor subunit B [KO:K17386]
100460001  PDGFRB; platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta isoform X1 [KO:K05089] [EC:]
100461015  cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A [KO:K06621]
100435851  E2F1; transcription factor E2F1 [KO:K17454]
100458002  E2F2; transcription factor E2F2 isoform X1 [KO:K09389]
100443209  BCL2L11; bcl-2-like protein 11 isoform X1 [KO:K16341]
100445187  MARCKS; myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate [KO:K12561]
100441517  BMPR2; bone morphogenetic protein receptor type-2 [KO:K04671] [EC:]
100172663  HDAC1; histone deacetylase 1 [KO:K06067] [EC:]
100294534  HDAC2; histone deacetylase 2 [KO:K06067] [EC:]
100447447  EZH2; histone-lysine N-methyltransferase EZH2 isoform X1 [KO:K11430] [EC:]
100431592  GLS; glutaminase kidney isoform, mitochondrial isoform X1 [KO:K01425] [EC:]
100453856  GLS2; glutaminase liver isoform, mitochondrial isoform X2 [KO:K01425] [EC:]
100443901  SIRT1; NAD-dependent protein deacetylase sirtuin-1 isoform X1 [KO:K11411] [EC:]
100431449  WNT3; proto-oncogene Wnt-3 [KO:K00312]
100448240  WNT3A; protein Wnt-3a isoform X1 [KO:K00312]
100445606  CDCA5; sororin [KO:K17390]
100460820  KIF23; kinesin-like protein KIF23 isoform X1 [KO:K17387]
100432582  ROCK1; rho-associated protein kinase 1 [KO:K04514] [EC:]
100440778  PRKCE; protein kinase C epsilon type [KO:K18050] [EC:]
100454606  SLC45A3; solute carrier family 45 member 3 [KO:K15379]
100936414  VIM; vimentin [KO:K07606]
Lee YS, Dutta A
MicroRNAs in cancer.
Annu Rev Pathol 4:199-227 (2009)
Babashah S, Soleimani M
The oncogenic and tumour suppressive roles of microRNAs in cancer and apoptosis.
Eur J Cancer 47:1127-37 (2011)
Garzon R, Calin GA, Croce CM
MicroRNAs in Cancer.
Annu Rev Med 60:167-79 (2009)
Chen PS, Su JL, Hung MC
Dysregulation of microRNAs in cancer.
J Biomed Sci 19:90 (2012)
Ling H, Zhang W, Calin GA
Principles of microRNA involvement in human cancers.
Chin J Cancer 30:739-48 (2011)
Iorio MV, Croce CM
MicroRNA dysregulation in cancer: diagnostics, monitoring and therapeutics. A comprehensive review.
EMBO Mol Med 4:143-59 (2012)
Sayed D, Abdellatif M
MicroRNAs in development and disease.
Physiol Rev 91:827-87 (2011)
Wang Q, Wang S, Wang H, Li P, Ma Z
MicroRNAs: novel biomarkers for lung cancer diagnosis, prediction and treatment.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 237:227-35 (2012)
Song JH, Meltzer SJ
MicroRNAs in pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of gastroesophageal cancers.
Gastroenterology 143:35-47.e2 (2012)
Chu Y, Zhu H, Lv L, Zhou Y, Huo J
MiRNA s in oesophageal squamous cancer.
Neth J Med 71:69-75 (2013)
Kan T, Meltzer SJ
MicroRNAs in Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma.
Curr Opin Pharmacol 9:727-32 (2009)
Smith CM, Watson DI, Michael MZ, Hussey DJ
MicroRNAs, development of Barrett's esophagus, and progression to esophageal adenocarcinoma.
World J Gastroenterol 16:531-7 (2010)
Song S, Ajani JA
The role of microRNAs in cancers of the upper gastrointestinal tract.
Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 10:109-18 (2013)
Liu WH, Yeh SH, Chen PJ
Role of microRNAs in hepatitis B virus replication and pathogenesis.
Biochim Biophys Acta 1809:678-85 (2011)
Hrasovec S, Glavac D
MicroRNAs as Novel Biomarkers in Colorectal Cancer.
Front Genet 3:180 (2012)
Liu H
MicroRNAs in breast cancer initiation and progression.
Cell Mol Life Sci 69:3587-99 (2012)
Li SD, Zhang JR, Wang YQ, Wan XP
The role of microRNAs in ovarian cancer initiation and progression.
J Cell Mol Med 14:2240-9 (2010)
Zabolotneva AA, Zhavoronkov A, Garazha AV, Roumiantsev SA, Buzdin AA
Characteristic patterns of microRNA expression in human bladder cancer.
Front Genet 3:310 (2012)
Saini S, Majid S, Dahiya R
Diet, microRNAs and prostate cancer.
Pharm Res 27:1014-26 (2010)
pon05210  Colorectal cancer
pon05214  Glioma
pon05215  Prostate cancer
pon05219  Bladder cancer
pon05222  Small cell lung cancer
pon05223  Non-small cell lung cancer
KO pathway

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