KEGG   PATHWAY: ray04970
ray04970                    Pathway                                

Salivary secretion - Rousettus aegyptiacus (Egyptian rousette)
Saliva has manifold functions in maintaining the integrity of the oral tissues, in protecting teeth from caries, in the tasting and ingestion of food, in speech and in the tolerance of tenures, for example. Salivary secretion occurs in response to stimulation by neurotransmitters released from autonomic nerve endings. There are two secretory pathways: protein exocytosis and fluid secretion. Sympathetic stimulation leads to the activation of adenylate cyclase and accumulation of intracellular cAMP. The elevation of cAMP causes the secretion of proteins such as amylase and mucin. In contrast, parasympathetic stimulation activates phospholipase C and causes the elevation of intracellular Ca2+, which leads to fluid secretion; that is, water and ion transport. Ca2+ also induces amylase secretion, but the amount is smaller than that induced by cAMP.
Organismal Systems; Digestive system
Pathway map
ray04970  Salivary secretion

Other DBs
GO: 0046541
Rousettus aegyptiacus (Egyptian rousette) [GN:ray]
107511714  ADRB1; beta-1 adrenergic receptor [KO:K04141]
107513544  ADRB2; beta-2 adrenergic receptor [KO:K04142]
107515971  ADRB3; beta-3 adrenergic receptor [KO:K04143]
107500068  neuroendocrine secretory protein 55-like [KO:K04632]
107500067  GNAS; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(s) subunit alpha isoform X1 [KO:K04632]
107512406  ADCY1; adenylate cyclase type 1 [KO:K08041] [EC:]
107502700  ADCY2; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: adenylate cyclase type 2 [KO:K08042] [EC:]
107498506  ADCY3; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: adenylate cyclase type 3 [KO:K08043] [EC:]
107498014  ADCY4; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: adenylate cyclase type 4 [KO:K08044] [EC:]
107518038  ADCY5; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: adenylate cyclase type 5 [KO:K08045] [EC:]
107514224  ADCY6; adenylate cyclase type 6 isoform X1 [KO:K08046] [EC:]
107512248  ADCY7; adenylate cyclase type 7 isoform X1 [KO:K08047] [EC:]
107497689  ADCY8; adenylate cyclase type 8 isoform X1 [KO:K08048] [EC:]
107521680  ADCY9; adenylate cyclase type 9 [KO:K08049] [EC:]
107519437  PRKACA; cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit alpha [KO:K04345] [EC:]
107511590  PRKACB; cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit beta isoform X1 [KO:K04345] [EC:]
107515669  VAMP2; vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 isoform X1 [KO:K13504]
107515454  ADRA1A; alpha-1A adrenergic receptor isoform X1 [KO:K04135]
107521889  ADRA1B; alpha-1B adrenergic receptor [KO:K04136]
107505691  ADRA1D; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: alpha-1D adrenergic receptor [KO:K04137]
107502405  CHRM3; muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3 [KO:K04131]
107517194  GNAQ; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(q) subunit alpha [KO:K04634]
107506114  PLCB1; 1-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase beta-1 isoform X1 [KO:K05858] [EC:]
107519930  PLCB4; 1-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase beta-4 isoform X1 [KO:K05858] [EC:]
107497081  PLCB3; 1-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase beta-3 isoform X1 [KO:K05858] [EC:]
107514464  PLCB2; 1-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase beta-2 isoform X1 [KO:K05858] [EC:]
107510307  PRKCA; protein kinase C alpha type isoform X1 [KO:K02677] [EC:]
107516091  PRKCB; protein kinase C beta type isoform X1 [KO:K19662] [EC:]
107503061  PRKCG; protein kinase C gamma type isoform X1 [KO:K19663] [EC:]
107504134  ITPR1; inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 isoform X1 [KO:K04958]
107497427  ITPR2; inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 2 isoform X1 [KO:K04959]
107511965  ITPR3; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 3 [KO:K04960]
107518789  RYR3; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: ryanodine receptor 3 [KO:K04963]
107509556  CALM2; calmodulin [KO:K02183]
107508927  CALML4; calmodulin-like protein 4 isoform X1 [KO:K02183]
107515457  CALM1; calmodulin [KO:K02183]
107516034  CALM3; calmodulin [KO:K02183]
107501627  calmodulin-like protein 5 [KO:K02183]
107513162  NOS1; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: nitric oxide synthase, brain [KO:K13240] [EC:]
107507549  GUCY1A3; guanylate cyclase soluble subunit alpha-3 [KO:K12318] [EC:]
107518221  GUCY1A2; guanylate cyclase soluble subunit alpha-2 [KO:K12318] [EC:]
107507550  GUCY1B3; guanylate cyclase soluble subunit beta-1 isoform X1 [KO:K12319] [EC:]
107509998  guanylate cyclase soluble subunit beta-2-like [KO:K12319] [EC:]
107515478  PRKG1; cGMP-dependent protein kinase 1 isoform X1 [KO:K07376] [EC:]
107516479  PRKG2; cGMP-dependent protein kinase 2 isoform X1 [KO:K19477] [EC:]
107507351  CD38; ADP-ribosyl cyclase/cyclic ADP-ribose hydrolase 1 [KO:K01242] [EC:]
107507352  BST1; ADP-ribosyl cyclase/cyclic ADP-ribose hydrolase 2 [KO:K18152] [EC:]
107519452  BEST2; bestrophin-2 [KO:K13879]
107514260  AQP5; aquaporin-5 [KO:K09867]
107499819  ATP1A1; sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit alpha-1 isoform X1 [KO:K01539] [EC:]
107502600  ATP1A3; sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit alpha-3 [KO:K01539] [EC:]
107507949  ATP1A2; sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit alpha-2 isoform X1 [KO:K01539] [EC:]
107507966  ATP1A4; sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit alpha-4 [KO:K01539] [EC:]
107509410  ATP1B3; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit beta-3 [KO:K01540]
107512755  ATP1B1; sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit beta-1 [KO:K01540]
107515690  ATP1B2; sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit beta-2 [KO:K01540]
107498709  ATP1B4; protein ATP1B4 isoform X1 [KO:K01540]
107505043  FXYD2; sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit gamma isoform X1 [KO:K01538]
107504061  ATP2B3; plasma membrane calcium-transporting ATPase 3 isoform X1 [KO:K05850] [EC:]
107508151  ATP2B4; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: plasma membrane calcium-transporting ATPase 4 [KO:K05850] [EC:]
107520906  ATP2B1; plasma membrane calcium-transporting ATPase 1 isoform X1 [KO:K05850] [EC:]
107498349  ATP2B2; plasma membrane calcium-transporting ATPase 2 isoform X1 [KO:K05850] [EC:]
107517865  SLC12A2; solute carrier family 12 member 2 isoform X1 [KO:K10951]
107512308  KCNN4; intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium channel protein 4 isoform X1 [KO:K04945]
107518064  KCNMA1; calcium-activated potassium channel subunit alpha-1 isoform X1 [KO:K04936]
107520293  SLC4A2; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: anion exchange protein 2 [KO:K13855]
107503560  SLC9A1; sodium/hydrogen exchanger 1 [KO:K05742]
107516983  TRPV6; transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 6 [KO:K04975]
107511644  MUC5B; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: mucin-5B [KO:K13908]
107504398  pancreatic alpha-amylase [KO:K01176] [EC:]
107498631  cystatin-C-like [KO:K13899]
107508200  LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: lysozyme C-like [KO:K13915] [EC:]
107514505  LYZ; lysozyme C [KO:K13915] [EC:]
107518983  lysozyme-like protein 1 [KO:K13915] [EC:]
107499151  LPO; lactoperoxidase [KO:K12550] [EC:]
107513294  CAMP; cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide [KO:K13916]
C00001  H2O
C00011  CO2
C00076  Calcium cation
C00080  H+
C00165  Diacylglycerol
C00238  Potassium cation
C00288  HCO3-
C00533  Nitric oxide
C00547  L-Noradrenaline
C00575  3',5'-Cyclic AMP
C00698  Cl-
C00942  3',5'-Cyclic GMP
C01245  D-myo-Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate
C01330  Sodium cation
C01353  Carbonic acid
C01996  Acetylcholine
C13050  Cyclic ADP-ribose
Ishikawa Y, Cho G, Yuan Z, Skowronski MT, Pan Y, Ishida H
Water channels and zymogen granules in salivary glands.
J Pharmacol Sci 100:495-512 (2006)
Ishikawa Y, Cho G, Yuan Z, Inoue N, Nakae Y
Aquaporin-5 water channel in lipid rafts of rat parotid glands.
Biochim Biophys Acta 1758:1053-60 (2006)
Ambudkar IS
Regulation of calcium in salivary gland secretion.
Crit Rev Oral Biol Med 11:4-25 (2000)
Ishikawa Y, Ishida H
Aquaporin water channel in salivary glands.
Jpn J Pharmacol 83:95-101 (2000)
Baum BJ
Principles of saliva secretion.
Ann N Y Acad Sci 694:17-23 (1993)
Fujita-Yoshigaki J
Divergence and convergence in regulated exocytosis: the characteristics of cAMP-dependent enzyme secretion of parotid salivary acinar cells.
Cell Signal 10:371-5 (1998)
Heitzmann D, Warth R
Physiology and pathophysiology of potassium channels in gastrointestinal epithelia.
Physiol Rev 88:1119-82 (2008)
Proctor GB, Carpenter GH
Regulation of salivary gland function by autonomic nerves.
Auton Neurosci 133:3-18 (2007)
Turner RJ, Sugiya H
Understanding salivary fluid and protein secretion.
Oral Dis 8:3-11 (2002)
Van Nieuw Amerongen A, Bolscher JG, Veerman EC
Salivary proteins: protective and diagnostic value in cariology?
Caries Res 38:247-53 (2004)
Nakamoto T, Srivastava A, Romanenko VG, Ovitt CE, Perez-Cornejo P, Arreola J, Begenisich T, Melvin JE
Functional and molecular characterization of the fluid secretion mechanism in human parotid acinar cells.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 292:R2380-90 (2007)
Melvin JE, Yule D, Shuttleworth T, Begenisich T
Regulation of fluid and electrolyte secretion in salivary gland acinar cells.
Annu Rev Physiol 67:445-69 (2005)
Catalan MA, Nakamoto T, Melvin JE
The salivary gland fluid secretion mechanism.
J Med Invest 56 Suppl:192-6 (2009)
ray04020  Calcium signaling pathway
ray04530  Tight junction
ray04973  Carbohydrate digestion and absorption
KO pathway

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