KEGG   PATHWAY: ray05214
Entry
ray05214                    Pathway                                

Name
Glioma - Rousettus aegyptiacus (Egyptian rousette)
Description
Gliomas are the most common of the primary brain tumors and account for more than 40% of all central nervous system neoplasms. Gliomas include tumours that are composed predominantly of astrocytes (astrocytomas), oligodendrocytes (oligodendrogliomas), mixtures of various glial cells (for example,oligoastrocytomas) and ependymal cells (ependymomas). The most malignant form of infiltrating astrocytoma - glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) - is one of the most aggressive human cancers. GBM may develop de novo (primary glioblastoma) or by progression from low-grade or anaplastic astrocytoma (secondary glioblastoma). Primary glioblastomas develop in older patients and typically show genetic alterations (EGFR amplification, p16/INK4a deletion, and PTEN mutations) at frequencies of 24-34%. Secondary glioblastomas develop in younger patients and frequently show overexpression of PDGF and CDK4 as well as p53 mutations (65%) and loss of Rb playing major roles in such transformations. Loss of PTEN has been implicated in both pathways, although it is much more common in the pathogenesis of primary GBM.
Class
Human Diseases; Cancer: specific types
Pathway map
ray05214  Glioma
ray05214

Organism
Rousettus aegyptiacus (Egyptian rousette) [GN:ray]
Gene
107508819  EGF; pro-epidermal growth factor isoform X1 [KO:K04357]
107519111  TGFA; protransforming growth factor alpha [KO:K08774]
107498193  EGFR; epidermal growth factor receptor [KO:K04361] [EC:2.7.10.1]
107497394  PDGFA; platelet-derived growth factor subunit A isoform X1 [KO:K04359]
107502078  PDGFB; platelet-derived growth factor subunit B isoform X1 [KO:K17386]
107499793  PDGFRA; platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha isoform X1 [KO:K04363] [EC:2.7.10.1]
107497163  PDGFRB; platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta [KO:K05089] [EC:2.7.10.1]
107501166  IGF1; insulin-like growth factor I isoform X1 [KO:K05459]
107509347  insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor [KO:K05087] [EC:2.7.10.1]
107506741  PLCG1; 1-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase gamma-1 isoform X1 [KO:K01116] [EC:3.1.4.11]
107521319  PLCG2; 1-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase gamma-2 isoform X1 [KO:K05859] [EC:3.1.4.11]
107509556  CALM2; calmodulin [KO:K02183]
107508927  CALML4; calmodulin-like protein 4 isoform X1 [KO:K02183]
107515457  CALM1; calmodulin [KO:K02183]
107516034  CALM3; calmodulin [KO:K02183]
107501627  calmodulin-like protein 5 [KO:K02183]
107504874  CAMK1; calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type 1 isoform X1 [KO:K08794] [EC:2.7.11.17]
107517631  CAMK1G; calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type 1G [KO:K08794] [EC:2.7.11.17]
107510894  CAMK2D; calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II subunit delta isoform X1 [KO:K04515] [EC:2.7.11.17]
107512385  CAMK2B; calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II subunit beta isoform X1 [KO:K04515] [EC:2.7.11.17]
107497167  CAMK2A; calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II subunit alpha isoform X1 [KO:K04515] [EC:2.7.11.17]
107498266  CAMK2G; calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II subunit gamma isoform X1 [KO:K04515] [EC:2.7.11.17]
107506545  CAMK4; calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type IV [KO:K05869] [EC:2.7.11.17]
107510307  PRKCA; protein kinase C alpha type isoform X1 [KO:K02677] [EC:2.7.11.13]
107516091  PRKCB; protein kinase C beta type isoform X1 [KO:K19662] [EC:2.7.11.13]
107503061  PRKCG; protein kinase C gamma type isoform X1 [KO:K19663] [EC:2.7.11.13]
107505474  SHC1; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: SHC-transforming protein 1 [KO:K06279]
107512423  LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: SHC-transforming protein 1-like [KO:K06279]
107500961  SHC2; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: SHC-transforming protein 2 [KO:K17447]
107504308  SHC3; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: SHC-transforming protein 3 [KO:K17448]
107519965  SHC4; SHC-transforming protein 4 [KO:K17449]
107503781  GRB2; growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 [KO:K04364]
107519446  SOS1; son of sevenless homolog 1 isoform X1 [KO:K03099]
107511436  SOS2; son of sevenless homolog 2 isoform X1 [KO:K03099]
107507127  HRAS; GTPase HRas isoform X1 [KO:K02833]
107497434  KRAS; GTPase KRas isoform X1 [KO:K07827]
107499847  NRAS; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: GTPase NRas [KO:K07828]
107509353  ARAF; serine/threonine-protein kinase A-Raf isoform X1 [KO:K08845] [EC:2.7.11.1]
107504052  BRAF; serine/threonine-protein kinase B-raf isoform X1 [KO:K04365] [EC:2.7.11.1]
107519729  RAF1; RAF proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase [KO:K04366] [EC:2.7.11.1]
107508942  MAP2K1; dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 isoform X1 [KO:K04368] [EC:2.7.12.2]
107510634  MAP2K2; dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2 isoform X1 [KO:K04369] [EC:2.7.12.2]
107515836  MAPK3; mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 isoform X1 [KO:K04371] [EC:2.7.11.24]
107497830  MAPK1; mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 [KO:K04371] [EC:2.7.11.24]
107520152  PIK3CD; phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit delta isoform isoform X1 [KO:K00922] [EC:2.7.1.153]
107517828  PIK3CA; phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha isoform [KO:K00922] [EC:2.7.1.153]
107513958  PIK3CB; phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit beta isoform isoform X1 [KO:K00922] [EC:2.7.1.153]
107521668  PIK3R2; phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulatory subunit beta isoform X1 [KO:K02649]
107517899  PIK3R3; phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulatory subunit gamma isoform X1 [KO:K02649]
107498704  PIK3R1; phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulatory subunit alpha isoform X1 [KO:K02649]
107513978  AKT3; RAC-gamma serine/threonine-protein kinase isoform X1 [KO:K04456] [EC:2.7.11.1]
107521783  AKT2; RAC-beta serine/threonine-protein kinase [KO:K04456] [EC:2.7.11.1]
107498395  AKT1; RAC-alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase [KO:K04456] [EC:2.7.11.1]
107513109  MTOR; serine/threonine-protein kinase mTOR isoform X1 [KO:K07203] [EC:2.7.11.1]
107501760  PTEN; phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate 3-phosphatase and dual-specificity protein phosphatase PTEN [KO:K01110] [EC:3.1.3.16 3.1.3.48 3.1.3.67]
107506789  cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A-like [KO:K06621]
107512674  MDM2; E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase Mdm2 [KO:K06643] [EC:2.3.2.27]
107515689  TP53; cellular tumor antigen p53 isoform X1 [KO:K04451]
107514682  CDKN1A; cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 isoform X1 [KO:K06625]
107503391  CCND1; G1/S-specific cyclin-D1 [KO:K04503]
107501504  CDK4; cyclin-dependent kinase 4 [KO:K02089] [EC:2.7.11.22]
107519055  CDK6; cyclin-dependent kinase 6 [KO:K02091] [EC:2.7.11.22]
107520925  RB1; retinoblastoma-associated protein [KO:K06618]
107519491  E2F1; transcription factor E2F1 [KO:K17454]
107501037  E2F2; transcription factor E2F2 isoform X1 [KO:K09389]
107501692  E2F3; transcription factor E2F3 isoform X1 [KO:K06620]
107520573  GADD45A; growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein GADD45 alpha [KO:K04402]
107520147  GADD45B; growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein GADD45 beta [KO:K04402]
107499083  GADD45G; growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein GADD45 gamma [KO:K04402]
107498831  BAX; apoptosis regulator BAX isoform X1 [KO:K02159]
107511968  BAK1; bcl-2 homologous antagonist/killer isoform X1 [KO:K14021]
107511851  DDB2; DNA damage-binding protein 2 isoform X1 [KO:K10140]
107506450  POLK; DNA polymerase kappa [KO:K03511] [EC:2.7.7.7]
Compound
C00076  Calcium cation
C00165  Diacylglycerol
C01245  D-myo-Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate
C05981  Phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate
Reference
  Authors
Soni D, King JA, Kaye AH, Hovens CM.
  Title
Genetics of glioblastoma multiforme: mitogenic signaling and cell cycle pathways converge.
  Journal
J Clin Neurosci 12:1-5 (2005)
DOI:10.1016/j.jocn.2004.04.001
Reference
  Authors
Zhu Y, Parada LF.
  Title
The molecular and genetic basis of neurological tumours.
  Journal
Nat Rev Cancer 2:616-26 (2002)
DOI:10.1038/nrc866
Reference
  Authors
Holland EC.
  Title
Gliomagenesis: genetic alterations and mouse models.
  Journal
Nat Rev Genet 2:120-9 (2001)
DOI:10.1038/35052535
Reference
  Authors
Bansal K, Liang ML, Rutka JT.
  Title
Molecular biology of human gliomas.
  Journal
Technol Cancer Res Treat 5:185-94 (2006)
DOI:10.1177/153303460600500302
Reference
(Japanese)
  Authors
Tabuchi K (ed).
  Title
[Gliomas: Research and therapy] (In Japanese)
  Journal
Springer-Verlag Tokyo (2006)
Reference
  Authors
Kapoor GS, O'Rourke DM.
  Title
Mitogenic signaling cascades in glial tumors.
  Journal
Neurosurgery 52:1425-34; discussion 1434-5 (2003)
DOI:10.1227/01.NEU.0000065135.28143.39
Reference
  Authors
Hulleman E, Helin K.
  Title
Molecular mechanisms in gliomagenesis.
  Journal
Adv Cancer Res 94:1-27 (2005)
DOI:10.1016/S0065-230X(05)94001-3
Reference
  Authors
Schlessinger J.
  Title
Cell signaling by receptor tyrosine kinases.
  Journal
Cell 103:211-25 (2000)
DOI:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)00114-8
Reference
PMID:9643506
  Authors
Ng HK, Lam PY.
  Title
The molecular genetics of central nervous system tumors.
  Journal
Pathology 30:196-202 (1998)
DOI:10.1080/00313029800169236
Reference
  Authors
Knobbe CB, Merlo A, Reifenberger G.
  Title
Pten signaling in gliomas.
  Journal
Neuro-oncol 4:196-211 (2002)
DOI:10.1093/neuonc/4.3.196
Related
pathway
ray04010  MAPK signaling pathway
ray04012  ErbB signaling pathway
ray04020  Calcium signaling pathway
ray04060  Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction
ray04110  Cell cycle
ray04115  p53 signaling pathway
ray04150  mTOR signaling pathway
KO pathway
ko05214   
LinkDB

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