KEGG   PATHWAY: rir01503
Entry
rir01503                    Pathway                                

Name
Cationic antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) resistance - Rhizobium pusense IRBG74
Description
Cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) play an important role in host defense against microbial infection and are key components of the innate immune response. These are found among all classes of life ranging from prokaryotes to humans. In addition to the natural peptides, thousands of synthetic variants have been produced. CAMPs weaken the integrity of the bacterial inner and outer membranes and subsequently kill bacterial cells. On the other hand, bacteria have developed a number of mechanisms against CAMPs. These resistance mechanisms include decreased affinity to CAMPs by substitution of anionic cell surface constituents with cationic molecules; biosynthesis and crosslinking of cell envelope components; external trapping mechanisms that bind or neutralize the CAMPs by direct secretion of proteins, or the release of CAMPs binding molecules from the host cell surface; membrane efflux pumps; and production of peptidases.
Class
Human Diseases; Drug resistance: antimicrobial
Pathway map
rir01503  Cationic antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) resistance
rir01503

Organism
Rhizobium pusense IRBG74 [GN:rir]
Reference
  Authors
Nizet V
  Title
Antimicrobial peptide resistance mechanisms of human bacterial pathogens.
  Journal
Curr Issues Mol Biol 8:11-26 (2006)
Reference
  Authors
Gruenheid S, Le Moual H
  Title
Resistance to antimicrobial peptides in Gram-negative bacteria.
  Journal
FEMS Microbiol Lett 330:81-9 (2012)
DOI:10.1111/j.1574-6968.2012.02528.x
Reference
  Authors
Nawrocki KL, Crispell EK, McBride SM
  Title
Antimicrobial Peptide Resistance Mechanisms of Gram-Positive Bacteria.
  Journal
Antibiotics (Basel) 3:461-492 (2014)
DOI:10.3390/antibiotics3040461
Reference
  Authors
Anaya-Lopez JL, Lopez-Meza JE, Ochoa-Zarzosa A
  Title
Bacterial resistance to cationic antimicrobial peptides.
  Journal
Crit Rev Microbiol 39:180-95 (2013)
DOI:10.3109/1040841X.2012.699025
Reference
  Authors
Needham BD, Trent MS
  Title
Fortifying the barrier: the impact of lipid A remodelling on bacterial pathogenesis.
  Journal
Nat Rev Microbiol 11:467-81 (2013)
DOI:10.1038/nrmicro3047
Reference
  Authors
Yan A, Guan Z, Raetz CR
  Title
An undecaprenyl phosphate-aminoarabinose flippase required for polymyxin resistance in Escherichia coli.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 282:36077-89 (2007)
DOI:10.1074/jbc.M706172200
Reference
  Authors
Breazeale SD, Ribeiro AA, McClerren AL, Raetz CR.
  Title
A formyltransferase required for polymyxin resistance in Escherichia coli and the modification of lipid A with 4-Amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose. Identification and function oF UDP-4-deoxy-4-formamido-L-arabinose.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 280:14154-67 (2005)
DOI:10.1074/jbc.M414265200
Reference
  Authors
Olaitan AO, Morand S, Rolain JM
  Title
Mechanisms of polymyxin resistance: acquired and intrinsic resistance in bacteria.
  Journal
Front Microbiol 5:643 (2014)
DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2014.00643
Reference
  Authors
Martinez JL, Rojo F
  Title
Metabolic regulation of antibiotic resistance.
  Journal
FEMS Microbiol Rev 35:768-89 (2011)
DOI:10.1111/j.1574-6976.2011.00282.x
Reference
  Authors
Falagas ME, Rafailidis PI, Matthaiou DK
  Title
Resistance to polymyxins: Mechanisms, frequency and treatment options.
  Journal
Drug Resist Updat 13:132-8 (2010)
DOI:10.1016/j.drup.2010.05.002
Reference
  Authors
Gooderham WJ, Hancock RE
  Title
Regulation of virulence and antibiotic resistance by two-component regulatory systems in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
  Journal
FEMS Microbiol Rev 33:279-94 (2009)
DOI:10.1111/j.1574-6976.2008.00135.x
Reference
  Authors
Lee H, Hsu FF, Turk J, Groisman EA
  Title
The PmrA-regulated pmrC gene mediates phosphoethanolamine modification of lipid A and polymyxin resistance in Salmonella enterica.
  Journal
J Bacteriol 186:4124-33 (2004)
DOI:10.1128/JB.186.13.4124-4133.2004
Reference
  Authors
Wang D, Seeve C, Pierson LS 3rd, Pierson EA
  Title
Transcriptome profiling reveals links between ParS/ParR, MexEF-OprN, and quorum sensing in the regulation of adaptation and virulence in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
  Journal
BMC Genomics 14:618 (2013)
DOI:10.1186/1471-2164-14-618
Reference
  Authors
Falord M, Karimova G, Hiron A, Msadek T
  Title
GraXSR proteins interact with the VraFG ABC transporter to form a five-component system required for cationic antimicrobial peptide sensing and resistance in Staphylococcus aureus.
  Journal
Antimicrob Agents Chemother 56:1047-58 (2012)
DOI:10.1128/AAC.05054-11
Reference
  Authors
Rowley G, Spector M, Kormanec J, Roberts M
  Title
Pushing the envelope: extracytoplasmic stress responses in bacterial pathogens.
  Journal
Nat Rev Microbiol 4:383-94 (2006)
DOI:10.1038/nrmicro1394
Reference
  Authors
Piek S, Kahler CM
  Title
A comparison of the endotoxin biosynthesis and protein oxidation pathways in the biogenesis of the outer membrane of Escherichia coli and Neisseria meningitidis.
  Journal
Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2:162 (2012)
DOI:10.3389/fcimb.2012.00162
Reference
  Authors
Weatherspoon-Griffin N, Yang D, Kong W, Hua Z, Shi Y
  Title
The CpxR/CpxA two-component regulatory system up-regulates the multidrug resistance cascade to facilitate Escherichia coli resistance to a model antimicrobial peptide.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 289:32571-82 (2014)
DOI:10.1074/jbc.M114.565762
Reference
  Authors
Vogt SL, Raivio TL
  Title
Just scratching the surface: an expanding view of the Cpx envelope stress response.
  Journal
FEMS Microbiol Lett 326:2-11 (2012)
DOI:10.1111/j.1574-6968.2011.02406.x
Reference
  Authors
Shelton CL, Raffel FK, Beatty WL, Johnson SM, Mason KM
  Title
Sap transporter mediated import and subsequent degradation of antimicrobial peptides in Haemophilus.
  Journal
PLoS Pathog 7:e1002360 (2011)
DOI:10.1371/journal.ppat.1002360
Reference
  Authors
Otto M
  Title
Staphylococcus epidermidis--the 'accidental' pathogen.
  Journal
Nat Rev Microbiol 7:555-67 (2009)
DOI:10.1038/nrmicro2182
Reference
  Authors
Yang SJ, Bayer AS, Mishra NN, Meehl M, Ledala N, Yeaman MR, Xiong YQ, Cheung AL
  Title
The Staphylococcus aureus two-component regulatory system, GraRS, senses and confers resistance to selected cationic antimicrobial peptides.
  Journal
Infect Immun 80:74-81 (2012)
DOI:10.1128/IAI.05669-11
Reference
  Authors
Schmidtchen A, Frick IM, Andersson E, Tapper H, Bjorck L
  Title
Proteinases of common pathogenic bacteria degrade and inactivate the antibacterial peptide LL-37.
  Journal
Mol Microbiol 46:157-68 (2002)
DOI:10.1046/j.1365-2958.2002.03146.x
Reference
  Authors
Beceiro A, Tomas M, Bou G
  Title
Antimicrobial resistance and virulence: a successful or deleterious association in the bacterial world?
  Journal
Clin Microbiol Rev 26:185-230 (2013)
DOI:10.1128/CMR.00059-12
Related
pathway
rir00520  Amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism
rir00540  Lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis
rir02020  Two-component system
KO pathway
ko01503   
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