KEGG   PATHWAY: umr05216
Entry
umr05216                    Pathway                                

Name
Thyroid cancer - Ursus maritimus (polar bear)
Description
Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy and accounts for the majority of endocrine cancer- related deaths each year. More than 95% of thyroid carcinomas are derived from follicular cells. Their behavior varies from the indolent growing, well-differentiated papillary and follicular carcinomas (PTC and FTC, respectively) to the extremely aggressive undifferentiated carcinoma (UC). Somatic rearrangements of RET and TRK are almost exclusively found in PTC and may be found in early stages. The most distinctive molecular features of FTC are the prominence of aneuploidy and the high prevalence of RAS mutations and PAX8-PPAR{gamma} rearrangements. p53 seems to play a crucial role in the dedifferentiation process of thyroid carcinoma.
Class
Human Diseases; Cancer: specific types
Pathway map
umr05216  Thyroid cancer
umr05216

Organism
Ursus maritimus (polar bear) [GN:umr]
Gene
103668071  proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase receptor Ret-like [KO:K05126] [EC:2.7.10.1]
103667987  CCDC6; coiled-coil domain containing 6 [KO:K09288]
103667907  NCOA4; nuclear receptor coactivator 4 [KO:K09289]
103668407  TPM3; tropomyosin 3 [KO:K09290]
103668718  tropomyosin alpha-3 chain-like [KO:K09290]
103669375  TPR; translocated promoter region, nuclear basket protein [KO:K09291]
103673261  TFG; TRK-fused gene [KO:K09292]
103669173  GTPase HRas-like [KO:K02833]
103671035  HRAS; HRas proto-oncogene, GTPase [KO:K02833]
103669422  NRAS; neuroblastoma RAS viral oncogene homolog [KO:K07828]
103665244  KRAS; KRAS proto-oncogene, GTPase [KO:K07827]
103669103  BRAF; B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase [KO:K04365] [EC:2.7.11.1]
103679064  MAP2K1; mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 [KO:K04368] [EC:2.7.12.2]
103681834  MAP2K2; mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2 [KO:K04369] [EC:2.7.12.2]
103669286  MAPK1; mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 [KO:K04371] [EC:2.7.11.24]
103657827  MAPK3; mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 [KO:K04371] [EC:2.7.11.24]
103671861  PAX8; paired box 8 [KO:K09293]
103669544  PPARG; peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma [KO:K08530]
103679944  RXRA; retinoid X receptor alpha [KO:K08524]
103665560  RXRB; retinoid X receptor beta [KO:K08525]
103658229  RXRG; retinoid X receptor gamma [KO:K08526]
103660368  TP53; tumor protein p53 [KO:K04451]
103665536  CDKN1A; cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 1A [KO:K06625]
103681651  GADD45B; growth arrest and DNA damage inducible beta [KO:K04402]
103663135  GADD45A; growth arrest and DNA damage inducible alpha [KO:K04402]
103657107  BAX; BCL2 associated X, apoptosis regulator [KO:K02159]
103665481  putative Bcl-2 homologous antagonist/killer 2 [KO:K14021]
103672315  DDB2; damage specific DNA binding protein 2 [KO:K10140]
103663562  POLK; DNA polymerase kappa [KO:K03511] [EC:2.7.7.7]
103673974  cadherin-1-like [KO:K05689]
103673623  CDH1; cadherin 1 [KO:K05689]
103680384  CTNNB1; catenin beta 1 [KO:K02105]
103663815  TCF7; transcription factor 7 (T-cell specific, HMG-box) [KO:K02620]
103671448  TCF7L1; transcription factor 7 like 1 [KO:K04490]
103657263  TCF7L2; transcription factor 7 like 2 [KO:K04491]
103661728  LEF1; lymphoid enhancer binding factor 1 [KO:K04492]
103661697  MYC; v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog [KO:K04377]
103671139  CCND1; cyclin D1 [KO:K04503]
Reference
  Authors
Kondo T, Ezzat S, Asa SL.
  Title
Pathogenetic mechanisms in thyroid follicular-cell neoplasia.
  Journal
Nat Rev Cancer 6:292-306 (2006)
DOI:10.1038/nrc1836
Reference
  Authors
Chiloeches A, Marais R.
  Title
Is BRAF the Achilles' Heel of thyroid cancer?
  Journal
Clin Cancer Res 12:1661-4 (2006)
DOI:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-06-0051
Reference
  Authors
Reddi HV, McIver B, Grebe SK, Eberhardt NL
  Title
The paired box-8/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma oncogene in thyroid tumorigenesis.
  Journal
Endocrinology 148:932-5 (2007)
DOI:10.1210/en.2006-0926
Reference
  Authors
Santoro M, Melillo RM, Fusco A.
  Title
RET/PTC activation in papillary thyroid carcinoma: European Journal of Endocrinology Prize Lecture.
  Journal
Eur J Endocrinol 155:645-653 (2006)
DOI:10.1530/eje.1.02289
Reference
  Authors
Pierotti MA, Greco A.
  Title
Oncogenic rearrangements of the NTRK1/NGF receptor.
  Journal
Cancer Lett 232:90-8 (2006)
DOI:10.1016/j.canlet.2005.07.043
Reference
  Authors
Sobrinho-Simoes M, Preto A, Rocha AS, Castro P, Maximo V, Fonseca E, Soares P.
  Title
Molecular pathology of well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas.
  Journal
Virchows Arch 447:787-93 (2005)
DOI:10.1007/s00428-005-0065-5
Reference
  Authors
Gimm O.
  Title
Thyroid cancer.
  Journal
Cancer Lett 163:143-56 (2001)
DOI:10.1016/S0304-3835(00)00697-2
Reference
  Authors
Williams D.
  Title
Cancer after nuclear fallout: lessons from the Chernobyl accident.
  Journal
Nat Rev Cancer 2:543-9 (2002)
DOI:10.1038/nrc845
Related
pathway
umr03320  PPAR signaling pathway
umr04010  MAPK signaling pathway
umr04115  p53 signaling pathway
umr04310  Wnt signaling pathway
umr04520  Adherens junction
KO pathway
ko05216   
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