KEGG   ENZYME: 1.3.8.2
Entry
EC 1.3.8.2                  Enzyme                                 
Name
4,4'-diapophytoene desaturase (4,4'-diapolycopene-forming);
dehydrosqualene desaturase (ambiguous);
CrtN (ambiguous);
4,4'-diapophytoene:FAD oxidoreductase (ambiguous);
15-cis-4,4'-diapophytoene:FAD oxidoreductase;
4,4'-diapophytoene desaturase (ambiguous)
Class
Oxidoreductases;
Acting on the CH-CH group of donors;
With a flavin as acceptor
Sysname
15-cis-4,4'-diapophytoene:FAD oxidoreductase (4,4'-diapolycopene-forming)
Reaction(IUBMB)
15-cis-4,4'-diapophytoene + 4 FAD = all-trans-4,4'-diapolycopene + 4 FADH2 (overall reaction) [RN:R09690];
(1a) 15-cis-4,4'-diapophytoene + FAD = all-trans-4,4'-diapophytofluene + FADH2 [RN:R09719];
(1b) all-trans-4,4'-diapophytofluene + FAD = all-trans-4,4'-diapo-zeta-carotene + FADH2 [RN:R09744];
(1c) all-trans-4,4'-diapo-zeta-carotene + FAD = all-trans-4,4'-diaponeurosporene + FADH2 [RN:R09745];
(1d) all-trans-4,4'-diaponeurosporene + FAD = all-trans-4,4'-diapolycopene + FADH2 [RN:R09746]
Reaction(KEGG)
Substrate
15-cis-4,4'-diapophytoene [CPD:C16144];
FAD [CPD:C00016];
all-trans-4,4'-diapophytofluene;
all-trans-4,4'-diapo-zeta-carotene;
all-trans-4,4'-diaponeurosporene
Product
all-trans-4,4'-diapolycopene;
FADH2 [CPD:C01352];
all-trans-4,4'-diapophytofluene;
all-trans-4,4'-diapo-zeta-carotene;
all-trans-4,4'-diaponeurosporene
Comment
The enzyme catalyses four successive dehydrogenations, resulting in production of 4,4'-diapolycopene. While the enzyme from Staphylococcus aureus was only shown to produce 4,4'-diaponeurosporene in vivo [4], it is able to catalyse the last reaction in vitro [5].
History
EC 1.3.8.2 created 2011, modified 2011
Pathway
ec00906  Carotenoid biosynthesis
ec01110  Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
Orthology
K10209  4,4'-diapophytoene desaturase
Genes
MMTMetme_3722 Metme_3772
MDNJT25_002375
MDHAYM39_15940
MKOMKLM6_3292
METLU737_16980(crtI)
MPADKEF85_14165(crtI)
MELLIVG45_20695(crtI)
MAHMEALZ_3853
MBUREQU24_21275
MPSYCEK71_14815
SDOSD1155_02585
BPUBPUM_1011
BPUMBW16_05795
BPUSUP12_05405
BIFN288_07335
BACWQR42_05240
BWHA9C19_15140
BXIBK049_02850
BALTCFN77_05400(crtI)
BSAFBSL056_05350
BACQDOE78_06240
BHKB4U37_06805
BMQBMQ_0654(crtI)
BMDBMD_0657(crtI)
BMHBMWSH_4603
BMEGBG04_2946(crtI)
BLEBleG1_1579
BPFBpOF4_14550(crtN2)
AFLAflv_2201
AGNAFK25_03135
LGYT479_06385
HHDHBHAL_2760(crtNa)
HMNHM131_12865
HLIHLI_02870
TAPGZ22_08215
TAIDKS242_09310(crtI)
FPNABE65_002075
POFGS400_07980(crtI)
BVQFHE72_07975(crtI)
BBEVBBEV_1360(carC)
BSEBsel_2215
SAUSA2348(crtN)
SAVSAV2561(crtN)
SAWSAHV_2545(crtN)
SAHSaurJH1_2637
SAJSaurJH9_2583
SAMMW2482(crtN)
SASSAS2447
SARSAR2642(crtN)
SACSACOL2576(crtN)
SAXUSA300HOU_2556(crtN)
SAASAUSA300_2498(crtN)
SAOSAOUHSC_02877
SAENWMN_2461(crtN)
SADSAAV_2627(crtN)
SUUM013TW_2535
SUVSAVC_11685
SUESAOV_2606c
SUJSAA6159_02457(crtN)
SUKSAA6008_02600(crtN)
SUCECTR2_2414(crtI)
SUTSAT0131_02772
SUQHMPREF0772_10628(crtN)
SUZMS7_2568(crtI)
SUDST398NM01_2612
SUXSAEMRSA15_24640(crtN)
SUWSATW20_26830(crtN)
SUGSAPIG2612
SUFSARLGA251_23360(crtN)
SAUASAAG_00382
SAUERSAU_002402(crtN)
SAUNSAKOR_02552
SAUSSA40_2315(crtN)
SAUUSA957_2399(crtN)
SAUGSA268_2477(crtN)
SAUZSAZ172_2661(crtN)
SAUTSAI1T1_2019060
SAUJSAI2T2_1019070
SAUKSAI3T3_1019060
SAUQSAI4T8_1019070
SAUVSAI7S6_1019060(crtN)
SAUWSAI5S5_1019000(crtN)
SAUXSAI6T6_1019010(crtN)
SAUYSAI8T7_1019040(crtN)
SAUFX998_2544
SABSAB2434c(crtN)
SUYSA2981_2498(crtN)
SAUBC248_2619(crtN)
SAUMBN843_25980
SAUCCA347_2637(crtI)
SAURSABB_01123(crtN)
SAUIAZ30_13420
SAUDCH52_06195
SAMSNI36_12815
SHASH0491(crtN)
SHHShL2_00392(crtN)
SLGSLGD_00188
SLNSLUG_01860(crtN)
SWAA284_01660
SPASSTP1_1063
SXYBE24_11825 BE24_13815
SXLSXYLSMQ121_0054
SXOSXYL_00054(crtN)
SCAPAYP1020_1732(crtN)
SEQOSE1039_25780
SNLBJD96_00600
SKLC7J89_02360
SHOMEGX58_06065(crtI)
SCARDWB96_01950(crtI)
SCHRDWB92_00435(crtI)
SARLSAP2_00940(crtN)
SPICSAMEA4384060_0089(crtN)
SSHNCTC13712_02517(crtN)
SSIMSAMEA4384339_2367(crtN)
SDBCNQ82_01440(crtI)
SLLOISP08_00325(crtI)
SSCUCEP64_13175
MLENH3V22_08590(crtI)
ESIExig_0735
EATEAT1b_2490
EANEab7_0708
EXMU719_03895
EXUESP131_06315
EAPKB235_12920(crtI)
EACEKKI46_04090(crtI)
PMSKNP414_02936
PMQPM3016_3176
PMWB2K_16065
PBDPBOR_33905
PAENP40081_35235
PAEFR50345_28925
PAEQR50912_31865
PAEAR70723_30730
PAEER70331_29485
PBVAR543_22780
PXLBS614_00360
PSWUSY83_14330
PBACHUB98_14540(crtI)
PTRIKDC22_30860(crtI)
PTJJRJ22_27235(crtI)
PALRHGI30_22145(crtI)
COHNKCTCHS21_30290(crtI)
SACAFFV09_08630(crtI)
SIVSSIL_2899
SSILSOLI23_04160
PLNPlano_2718
PKUAUO94_02175
PRTAUC31_12715
PLLI858_009360
PANABBH88_05385
PDGBCM40_01745
PHCBBI08_10760
PMARB0X71_04050
PPLABBI15_09600
PFAEAJGP001_15445
PMATBBI11_15130
PDECH1Q58_14415(crtI)
PGQFK545_04955(crtI)
JEOJMA_13790
KURASO14_1058(crtI)
PANCE2636_00230(crtI)
PLAYDNR44_006385(crtI)
EACEAL2_c15570(carC)
RMARGBA65_14020(crtI)
IPOIlyop_0965
CRMK6119_08825(crtI)
 » show all
Reference
1  [PMID:8002598]
  Authors
Wieland B, Feil C, Gloria-Maercker E, Thumm G, Lechner M, Bravo JM, Poralla K, Gotz F.
  Title
Genetic and biochemical analyses of the biosynthesis of the yellow carotenoid 4,4'-diaponeurosporene of Staphylococcus aureus.
  Journal
J Bacteriol 176:7719-26 (1994)
DOI:10.1128/JB.176.24.7719-7726.1994
  Sequence
[sae:NWMN_2461]
Reference
2  [PMID:10498735]
  Authors
Raisig A, Sandmann G
  Title
4,4'-diapophytoene desaturase: catalytic properties of an enzyme from the C(30) carotenoid pathway of Staphylococcus aureus.
  Journal
J Bacteriol 181:6184-7 (1999)
DOI:10.1128/JB.181.19.6184-6187.1999
  Sequence
[sae:NWMN_2461]
Reference
3  [PMID:11566453]
  Authors
Raisig A, Sandmann G
  Title
Functional properties of diapophytoene and related desaturases of C(30) and C(40) carotenoid biosynthetic pathways.
  Journal
Biochim Biophys Acta 1533:164-70 (2001)
DOI:10.1016/S1388-1981(01)00154-8
  Sequence
[sae:NWMN_2461]
Reference
4  [PMID:15933032]
  Authors
Tao L, Schenzle A, Odom JM, Cheng Q
  Title
Novel carotenoid oxidase involved in biosynthesis of 4,4'-diapolycopene dialdehyde.
  Journal
Appl Environ Microbiol 71:3294-301 (2005)
DOI:10.1128/AEM.71.6.3294-3301.2005
Reference
5  [PMID:19618272]
  Authors
Yoshida K, Ueda S, Maeda I
  Title
Carotenoid production in Bacillus subtilis achieved by metabolic engineering.
  Journal
Biotechnol Lett 31:1789-93 (2009)
DOI:10.1007/s10529-009-0082-6
Other DBs
ExplorEnz - The Enzyme Database: 1.3.8.2
IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature: 1.3.8.2
ExPASy - ENZYME nomenclature database: 1.3.8.2
BRENDA, the Enzyme Database: 1.3.8.2
LinkDB

DBGET integrated database retrieval system