KEGG   PATHWAY: map00941Help
Entry
map00941                    Pathway                                

Name
Flavonoid biosynthesis
Description
Flavonoids are a major class of plant secondary metabolites that serves a multitude of functions including pigments and antioxidant activity. Flavonoids are synthesized from phenylpropanoid derivatives by condensation with malonyl-CoA. For example, condensation of p-coumaroyl-CoA (C6-C3) with three malonyl-CoA (C3) molecules results in naringenin chalcone with a diphenylpropane (C6-C3-C6) unit, which is converted to naringenin with the flavone (2-phenylchromen-4-one) backbone by conjugate ring closure. These and further modifications yield a variety of structural forms including chalcones, flavanones, dihyroflavonols, and flavans, anthocyanins, flavones and flavonols, and isoflavonoids.
Class
Metabolism; Biosynthesis of other secondary metabolites
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
map00941  Flavonoid biosynthesis
map00941

Ortholog table
Module
M00137  Flavanone biosynthesis, phenylalanine => naringenin [PATH:map00941]
M00138  Flavonoid biosynthesis, naringenin => pelargonidin [PATH:map00941]
Other DBs
GO: 0009813
Reference
  Authors
Tsai CJ, Harding SA, Tschaplinski TJ, Lindroth RL, Yuan Y.
  Title
Genome-wide analysis of the structural genes regulating defense phenylpropanoid metabolism in Populus.
  Journal
New Phytol 172:47-62 (2006)
DOI:10.1111/j.1469-8137.2006.01798.x
Reference
  Authors
Ono E, Hatayama M, Isono Y, Sato T, Watanabe R, Yonekura-Sakakibara K, Fukuchi-Mizutani M, Tanaka Y, Kusumi T, Nishino T, Nakayama T.
  Title
Localization of a flavonoid biosynthetic polyphenol oxidase in vacuoles.
  Journal
Plant J 45:133-43 (2006)
DOI:10.1111/j.1365-313X.2005.02625.x
Reference
  Authors
Morreel K, Goeminne G, Storme V, Sterck L, Ralph J, Coppieters W, Breyne P, Steenackers M, Georges M, Messens E, Boerjan W.
  Title
Genetical metabolomics of flavonoid biosynthesis in Populus: a case study.
  Journal
Plant J 47:224-37 (2006)
DOI:10.1111/j.1365-313X.2006.02786.x
Reference
  Authors
Ono E, Fukuchi-Mizutani M, Nakamura N, Fukui Y, Yonekura-Sakakibara K, Yamaguchi M, Nakayama T, Tanaka T, Kusumi T, Tanaka Y.
  Title
Yellow flowers generated by expression of the aurone biosynthetic pathway.
  Journal
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:11075-80 (2006)
DOI:10.1073/pnas.0604246103
Reference
  Authors
Halbwirth H, Martens S, Wienand U, Forkmann G, Stich K.
  Title
Synthesis of (14C)-labeled 5-deoxyflavonoids and their application in the study of dihydroflavonol/leucoanthocyanidin interconversion by dihydroflavonol 4-reductase.
  Journal
Plant Science 170(3): 587-595 (2006)
DOI:10.1016/j.plantsci.2005.10.013
Reference
  Authors
Stevens JF, Page JE.
  Title
Xanthohumol and related prenylflavonoids from hops and beer: to your good health!
  Journal
Phytochemistry 65:1317-30 (2004)
DOI:10.1016/j.phytochem.2004.04.025
Reference
  Authors
Ogata J, Itoh Y, Ishida M, Yoshida H, Ozeki Y.
  Title
Cloning and heterologous expression of cDNAs encoding flavonoid glucosyltransferases from Dianthus caryophyllus.
  Journal
Plant Biotechnology 21(5):367-375 (2004)
DOI:10.5511/plantbiotechnology.21.367
Reference
  Authors
Springob K, Nakajima J, Yamazaki M, Saito K.
  Title
Recent advances in the biosynthesis and accumulation of anthocyanins.
  Journal
Nat Prod Rep 20:288-303 (2003)
DOI:10.1039/b109542k
Reference
  Authors
Shimada N, Aoki T, Sato S, Nakamura Y, Tabata S, Ayabe S.
  Title
A cluster of genes encodes the two types of chalcone isomerase involved in the biosynthesis of general flavonoids and legume-specific 5-deoxy(iso)flavonoids in Lotus japonicus.
  Journal
Plant Physiol 131:941-51 (2003)
DOI:10.1104/pp.004820
Reference
  Authors
Halbwirth H, Martens S, Wienand U, Forkmann G, Stich K.
  Title
Biochemical formation of anthocyanins in silk tissue of Zea mays.
  Journal
Plant Science 164(4):489-495 (2003)
DOI:10.1016/S0168-9452(02)00433-8
Reference
  Authors
Martens S, Knott J, Seitz CA, Janvari L, Yu SN, Forkmann G.
  Title
Impact of biochemical pre-studies on specific metabolic engineering strategies of flavonoid biosynthesis in plant tissues.
  Journal
Biochemical Engineering Journal 14(3):227-235 (2003)
DOI:10.1016/S1369-703X(02)00224-3
Reference
  Authors
Nakayama T, Yonekura-Sakakibara K, Sato T, Kikuchi S, Fukui Y, Fukuchi-Mizutani M, Ueda T, Nakao M, Tanaka Y, Kusumi T, Nishino T.
  Title
Aureusidin synthase: a polyphenol oxidase homolog responsible for flower coloration.
  Journal
Science 290:1163-6 (2000)
DOI:10.1126/science.290.5494.1163
Reference
  Authors
Lewinsohn E, Britsch L, Mazur Y, Gressel J
  Title
Flavanone Glycoside Biosynthesis in Citrus: Chalcone Synthase, UDP-Glucose:Flavanone-7-O-Glucosyl-Transferase and -Rhamnosyl-Transferase Activities in Cell-Free Extracts.
  Journal
Plant Physiol 91:1323-8 (1989)
DOI:10.1104/pp.91.4.1323
Related
pathway
map00940  Phenylpropanoid biosynthesis
map00942  Anthocyanin biosynthesis
map00943  Isoflavonoid biosynthesis
map00944  Flavone and flavonol biosynthesis
KO pathway
ko00941   
LinkDB All DBs

DBGET integrated database retrieval system