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DNA replication - Chloroflexus aurantiacus Y-400-fl
A complex network of interacting proteins and enzymes is required for DNA replication. Generally, DNA replication follows a multistep enzymatic pathway. At the DNA replication fork, a DNA helicase (DnaB or MCM complex) precedes the DNA synthetic machinery and unwinds the duplex parental DNA in cooperation with the SSB or RPA. On the leading strand, replication occurs continuously in a 5 to 3 direction, whereas on the lagging strand, DNA replication occurs discontinuously by synthesis and joining of short Okazaki fragments. In prokaryotes, the leading strand replication apparatus consists of a DNA polymerase (pol III core), a sliding clamp (beta), and a clamp loader (gamma delta complex). The DNA primase (DnaG) is needed to form RNA primers. Normally, during replication of the lagging-strand DNA template, an RNA primer is removed either by an RNase H or by the 5 to 3 exonuclease activity of DNA pol I, and the DNA ligase joins the Okazaki fragments. In eukaryotes, three DNA polymerases (alpha, delta, and epsilon) have been identified. DNA primase forms a permanent complex with DNA polymerase alpha. PCNA and RFC function as a clamp and a clamp loader. FEN 1 and RNase H1 remove the RNA from the Okazaki fragments and DNA ligase I joins the DNA.
09120 Genetic Information Processing; 09124 Replication and repair
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chl03030  DNA replication

Ortholog table
Chloroflexus aurantiacus Y-400-fl [GN:chl]
Chy400_2948  DNA polymerase III, epsilon subunit [KO:K02342] [EC:]
Chy400_3315  DNA polymerase III, epsilon subunit [KO:K02342] [EC:]
Chy400_1111  DNA polymerase III, alpha subunit [KO:K02337] [EC:]
Chy400_0559  DNA polymerase III, subunits gamma and tau [KO:K02343] [EC:]
Chy400_2607  DNA polymerase III, delta subunit [KO:K02340] [EC:]
Chy400_2852  DNA polymerase III, beta subunit [KO:K02338] [EC:]
Chy400_1037  replicative DNA helicase [KO:K02314] [EC:]
Chy400_3152  DNA primase [KO:K02316] [EC:2.7.7.-]
Chy400_0945  single-strand binding protein [KO:K03111]
Chy400_1121  single-strand binding protein [KO:K03111]
Chy400_1719  single-strand binding protein [KO:K03111]
Chy400_1396  Ribonuclease H [KO:K03469] [EC:]
Chy400_1137  Ribonuclease H [KO:K03470] [EC:]
Chy400_0368  DNA polymerase I [KO:K02335] [EC:]
Chy400_0256  DNA ligase, NAD-dependent [KO:K01972] [EC:]
Stillman B.
Smart machines at the DNA replication fork.
Cell 78:725-8 (1994)
Waga S, Stillman B.
The DNA replication fork in eukaryotic cells.
Annu Rev Biochem 67:721-51 (1998)
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