KEGG   PATHWAY: ko05310Help
Entry
ko05310                     Pathway                                

Name
Asthma
Description
Asthma is a complex syndrome with many clinical phenotypes in both adults and children. Its major characteristics include a variable degree of airflow obstruction, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and airway inflammation. Inhaled allergens encounter antigen presenting cells (APC) that line the airway. Upon recognition of the antigen and activation by APC, naive T cells differentiate into TH2 cells. Activated TH2 stimulate the formation of IgE by B cells. IgE molecules bind to IgE receptors located on mast cells. The crosslinking of mast-cell-bound IgE by allergens leads to the release of biologically active mediators (histamine, leukotrienes) by means of degranulation and, so, to the immediate symptoms of allergy. Mast cells also release chemotactic factors that contribute to the recruitment of inflammatory cells, particularly eosinophils, whose proliferation and differentiation from bone marrow progenitors is promoted by IL-5. The activation of eosinophils leads to release of toxic granules and oxygen free radicals that lead to tissue damage and promote the development of chronic inflammation.
Class
Human Diseases; Immune disease
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
ko05310  Asthma
ko05310

Ortholog table
Disease
H00079  Asthma
H01094  Eosinophil peroxidase deficiency
Drug
D05994  Talizumab (USAN/INN)
Orthology
K06752  MHC class II antigen
K10784  T cell receptor alpha chain V region
K10785  T-cell receptor beta chain V region
K05430  interleukin 4
K03161  tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 5
K03160  tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 5
K06856  immunoglobulin heavy chain
K08089  high affinity immunoglobulin epsilon receptor subunit alpha
K08090  high affinity immunoglobulin epsilon receptor subunit beta
K07983  high affinity immunoglobulin epsilon receptor subunit gamma
K05432  interleukin 9
K05443  interleukin 10
K05435  interleukin 13
K05428  interleukin 5
K16597  C-C motif chemokine 11
K03156  tumor necrosis factor superfamily, member 2
K04736  interleukin 3
K10786  bone marrow proteoglycan
K10787  eosinophil cationic protein [EC:3.1.27.-]
K10788  eosinophil peroxidase [EC:1.11.1.7]
Compound
C00388  Histamine
C00696  Prostaglandin D2
C02166  Leukotriene C4
C04598  2-Acetyl-1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
C05951  Leukotriene D4
Reference
  Authors
Busse WW, Lemanske RF Jr.
  Title
Asthma.
  Journal
N Engl J Med 344:350-62 (2001)
DOI:10.1056/NEJM200102013440507
Reference
  Authors
Renauld JC.
  Title
New insights into the role of cytokines in asthma.
  Journal
J Clin Pathol 54:577-89 (2001)
DOI:10.1136/jcp.54.8.577
Reference
  Authors
Romagnani S.
  Title
The role of lymphocytes in allergic disease.
  Journal
J Allergy Clin Immunol 105:399-408 (2000)
DOI:10.1067/mai.2000.104575
Reference
  Authors
Averbeck M, Gebhardt C, Emmrich F, Treudler R, Simon JC.
  Title
Immunologic principles of allergic disease.
  Journal
J Dtsch Dermatol Ges 5:1015-28 (2007)
DOI:10.1111/j.1610-0387.2007.06538.x
Reference
  Authors
Conroy DM, Williams TJ.
  Title
Eotaxin and the attraction of eosinophils to the asthmatic lung.
  Journal
Respir Res 2:150-6 (2001)
DOI:10.1186/rr52
Reference
  Authors
Effros RM, Nagaraj H.
  Title
Asthma: new developments concerning immune mechanisms, diagnosis and treatment.
  Journal
Curr Opin Pulm Med 13:37-43 (2007)
DOI:10.1097/MCP.0b013e3280108757
Reference
  Authors
Barnes PJ.
  Title
Immunology of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
  Journal
Nat Rev Immunol 8:183-92 (2008)
DOI:10.1038/nri2254
Reference
  Authors
Holgate ST, Polosa R.
  Title
Treatment strategies for allergy and asthma.
  Journal
Nat Rev Immunol 8:218-30 (2008)
DOI:10.1038/nri2262
Reference
  Authors
Valenta R.
  Title
The future of antigen-specific immunotherapy of allergy.
  Journal
Nat Rev Immunol 2:446-53 (2002)
DOI:10.1038/nri824
Reference
  Authors
Trivedi SG, Lloyd CM.
  Title
Eosinophils in the pathogenesis of allergic airways disease.
  Journal
Cell Mol Life Sci 64:1269-89 (2007)
DOI:10.1007/s00018-007-6527-y
Reference
  Authors
Heinecke JW.
  Title
Eosinophil-dependent bromination in the pathogenesis of asthma.
  Journal
J Clin Invest 105:1331-2 (2000)
DOI:10.1172/JCI10072
Related
pathway
ko04060  Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction
ko04514  Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs)
ko04612  Antigen processing and presentation
ko04630  JAK-STAT signaling pathway
ko04660  T cell receptor signaling pathway
ko04662  B cell receptor signaling pathway
ko04664  Fc epsilon RI signaling pathway
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