KEGG   PATHWAY: hsa05170
hsa05170                    Pathway                                
Human immunodeficiency virus 1 infection - Homo sapiens (human)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) , the causative agent of AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), is a lentivirus belonging to the Retroviridae family. The primary cell surface receptor for HIV-1, the CD4 protein, and the co-receptor for HIV-1, either CCR5 or CXCR4, are found on macrophages and T lymphocytes. At the earliest step, sequential binding of virus envelope (Env) glycoprotein gp120 to CD4 and the co-receptor CCR5 or CXCR4 facilitates HIV-1 entry and has the potential to trigger critical signaling that may favor viral replication. At advanced stages of the disease, HIV-1 infection results in dramatic induction of T-cell (CD4+ T and CD8+ T cell) apoptosis both in infected and uninfected bystander T cells, a hallmark of HIV-1 pathogenesis. On the contrary, macrophages are resistant to the cytopathic effect of HIV-1 and produce virus for longer periods of time.
Human Diseases; Infectious disease: viral
Pathway map
hsa05170  Human immunodeficiency virus 1 infection

nt06124  Chemokine signaling (viruses)
nt06129  MHC presentation (viruses)
nt06130  Cell cycle (viruses)
nt06131  Apoptosis (viruses and bacteria)
nt06150  Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction (viruses)
nt06161  Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)
nt06516  TNF signaling
nt06517  TLR signaling
nt06520  CGAS-STING signaling
N00431  HIV gp120 to CXCR4-GNAI-PI3K-BAD signaling pathway
N00432  HIV gp120 to CXCR4-GNAQ-PLCB/G-calcineurin
N00434  HIV gp120 to CXCR4-GNB/G-RAC signaling pathway
N00436  HIV Tat to TLR2/4-NFKB signaling pathway
N00437  HIV Vpu to TLR2/4-NFKB signaling pathway
N00439  HIV Nef to TLR2/4-MAPK signaling pathway
N00440  HIV Vpu/Vif/Vpr to cGAS-STING signaling pathway
N00441  HIV gp120 to TNF-NFKB signaling pathway
N00442  HIV Nef to TNF-NFKB signaling pathway
N00443  HIV Vpr/Nef/Tat to TNF-NFKB signaling pathway
N00445  HIV Tat/Nef to TNF-p38 signaling pathway
N00447  HIV Vpr/Tat to TNF-JNK signaling pathway
N00448  HIV Tat/Nef to crosstalk between extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways
N00449  HIV Tat/Nef to crosstalk between extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways
N00450  HIV Tat to intrinsic apoptotic pathway
N00451  HIV Tat to intrinsic apoptotic pathway
N00452  HIV Nef to intrinsic apoptotic pathway
N00453  HIV Vpr to intrinsic apoptotic pathway
N00454  HIV Vpr to intrinsic apoptotic pathway
N00456  HIV Vpr to CDC25-cell cycle G2M
N00457  HIV Vpr to cell cycle G2M
N00458  HIV Vpr to CDC25-cell cycle G2M
N00460  HIV Vpr to WEE1-cell cycle G2M
N00461  HIV Nef to antigen processing and presentation by MHC class I molecules
H00406  Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
H01563  HIV infection
D06670  Maraviroc (JAN/INN)
D09575  Ibalizumab (USAN/INN)
Homo sapiens (human) [GN:hsa]
920  CD4; CD4 molecule [KO:K06454]
8945  BTRC; beta-transducin repeat containing E3 ubiquitin protein ligase [KO:K03362]
23291  FBXW11; F-box and WD repeat domain containing 11 [KO:K03362]
6500  SKP1; S-phase kinase associated protein 1 [KO:K03094]
8454  CUL1; cullin 1 [KO:K03347]
9978  RBX1; ring-box 1 [KO:K03868] [EC:]
7852  CXCR4; C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 4 [KO:K04189]
1234  CCR5; C-C motif chemokine receptor 5 [KO:K04180]
2770  GNAI1; G protein subunit alpha i1 [KO:K04630]
2773  GNAI3; G protein subunit alpha i3 [KO:K04630]
2771  GNAI2; G protein subunit alpha i2 [KO:K04630]
2775  GNAO1; G protein subunit alpha o1 [KO:K04534]
5290  PIK3CA; phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha [KO:K00922] [EC:]
5293  PIK3CD; phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit delta [KO:K00922] [EC:]
5291  PIK3CB; phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit beta [KO:K00922] [EC:]
5295  PIK3R1; phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 1 [KO:K02649]
5296  PIK3R2; phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 2 [KO:K02649]
8503  PIK3R3; phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 3 [KO:K02649]
5747  PTK2; protein tyrosine kinase 2 [KO:K05725] [EC:]
2185  PTK2B; protein tyrosine kinase 2 beta [KO:K05871] [EC:]
5829  PXN; paxillin [KO:K05760]
1398  CRK; CRK proto-oncogene, adaptor protein [KO:K04438]
1399  CRKL; CRK like proto-oncogene, adaptor protein [KO:K04438]
207  AKT1; AKT serine/threonine kinase 1 [KO:K04456] [EC:]
208  AKT2; AKT serine/threonine kinase 2 [KO:K04456] [EC:]
10000  AKT3; AKT serine/threonine kinase 3 [KO:K04456] [EC:]
2475  MTOR; mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase [KO:K07203] [EC:]
6198  RPS6KB1; ribosomal protein S6 kinase B1 [KO:K04688] [EC:]
6199  RPS6KB2; ribosomal protein S6 kinase B2 [KO:K04688] [EC:]
4790  NFKB1; nuclear factor kappa B subunit 1 [KO:K02580]
5970  RELA; RELA proto-oncogene, NF-kB subunit [KO:K04735]
2353  FOS; Fos proto-oncogene, AP-1 transcription factor subunit [KO:K04379]
3725  JUN; Jun proto-oncogene, AP-1 transcription factor subunit [KO:K04448]
572  BAD; BCL2 associated agonist of cell death [KO:K02158]
3265  HRAS; HRas proto-oncogene, GTPase [KO:K02833]
3845  KRAS; KRAS proto-oncogene, GTPase [KO:K07827]
4893  NRAS; NRAS proto-oncogene, GTPase [KO:K07828]
5894  RAF1; Raf-1 proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase [KO:K04366] [EC:]
5604  MAP2K1; mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 [KO:K04368] [EC:]
5605  MAP2K2; mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2 [KO:K04369] [EC:]
5594  MAPK1; mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 [KO:K04371] [EC:]
5595  MAPK3; mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 [KO:K04371] [EC:]
2776  GNAQ; G protein subunit alpha q [KO:K04634]
2767  GNA11; G protein subunit alpha 11 [KO:K04635]
5335  PLCG1; phospholipase C gamma 1 [KO:K01116] [EC:]
5336  PLCG2; phospholipase C gamma 2 [KO:K05859] [EC:]
3708  ITPR1; inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 [KO:K04958]
3709  ITPR2; inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 2 [KO:K04959]
3710  ITPR3; inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 3 [KO:K04960]
810  CALML3; calmodulin like 3 [KO:K02183]
805  CALM2; calmodulin 2 [KO:K02183]
808  CALM3; calmodulin 3 [KO:K02183]
801  CALM1; calmodulin 1 [KO:K02183]
163688  CALML6; calmodulin like 6 [KO:K02183]
51806  CALML5; calmodulin like 5 [KO:K02183]
91860  CALML4; calmodulin like 4 [KO:K02183]
5530  PPP3CA; protein phosphatase 3 catalytic subunit alpha [KO:K04348] [EC:]
5532  PPP3CB; protein phosphatase 3 catalytic subunit beta [KO:K04348] [EC:]
5533  PPP3CC; protein phosphatase 3 catalytic subunit gamma [KO:K04348] [EC:]
5534  PPP3R1; protein phosphatase 3 regulatory subunit B, alpha [KO:K06268]
5535  PPP3R2; protein phosphatase 3 regulatory subunit B, beta [KO:K06268]
4772  NFATC1; nuclear factor of activated T cells 1 [KO:K04446]
4773  NFATC2; nuclear factor of activated T cells 2 [KO:K17332]
4775  NFATC3; nuclear factor of activated T cells 3 [KO:K17333]
4776  NFATC4; nuclear factor of activated T cells 4 [KO:K17334]
5578  PRKCA; protein kinase C alpha [KO:K02677] [EC:]
5579  PRKCB; protein kinase C beta [KO:K19662] [EC:]
5582  PRKCG; protein kinase C gamma [KO:K19663] [EC:]
2782  GNB1; G protein subunit beta 1 [KO:K04536]
2783  GNB2; G protein subunit beta 2 [KO:K04537]
2784  GNB3; G protein subunit beta 3 [KO:K07825]
59345  GNB4; G protein subunit beta 4 [KO:K04538]
10681  GNB5; G protein subunit beta 5 [KO:K04539]
54331  GNG2; G protein subunit gamma 2 [KO:K07826]
2785  GNG3; G protein subunit gamma 3 [KO:K04540]
2786  GNG4; G protein subunit gamma 4 [KO:K04541]
2787  GNG5; G protein subunit gamma 5 [KO:K04542]
2788  GNG7; G protein subunit gamma 7 [KO:K04543]
94235  GNG8; G protein subunit gamma 8 [KO:K04544]
2790  GNG10; G protein subunit gamma 10 [KO:K04545]
2791  GNG11; G protein subunit gamma 11 [KO:K04546]
55970  GNG12; G protein subunit gamma 12 [KO:K04347]
51764  GNG13; G protein subunit gamma 13 [KO:K04547]
2792  GNGT1; G protein subunit gamma transducin 1 [KO:K04548]
2793  GNGT2; G protein subunit gamma transducin 2 [KO:K04549]
5879  RAC1; Rac family small GTPase 1 [KO:K04392]
5880  RAC2; Rac family small GTPase 2 [KO:K07860]
5881  RAC3; Rac family small GTPase 3 [KO:K07861]
5058  PAK1; p21 (RAC1) activated kinase 1 [KO:K04409] [EC:]
5062  PAK2; p21 (RAC1) activated kinase 2 [KO:K04410] [EC:]
5063  PAK3; p21 (RAC1) activated kinase 3 [KO:K05733] [EC:]
10298  PAK4; p21 (RAC1) activated kinase 4 [KO:K05734] [EC:]
57144  PAK5; p21 (RAC1) activated kinase 5 [KO:K05736] [EC:]
56924  PAK6; p21 (RAC1) activated kinase 6 [KO:K05735] [EC:]
106821730  BUB1B-PAK6; BUB1B-PAK6 readthrough [KO:K05735] [EC:]
3984  LIMK1; LIM domain kinase 1 [KO:K05743] [EC:]
3985  LIMK2; LIM domain kinase 2 [KO:K05744] [EC:]
1072  CFL1; cofilin 1 [KO:K05765]
1073  CFL2; cofilin 2 [KO:K05765]
7124  TNF; tumor necrosis factor [KO:K03156]
7133  TNFRSF1B; TNF receptor superfamily member 1B [KO:K05141]
598  BCL2L1; BCL2 like 1 [KO:K04570]
7097  TLR2; toll like receptor 2 [KO:K10159]
7099  TLR4; toll like receptor 4 [KO:K10160]
4615  MYD88; MYD88 innate immune signal transduction adaptor [KO:K04729]
51135  IRAK4; interleukin 1 receptor associated kinase 4 [KO:K04733] [EC:]
3654  IRAK1; interleukin 1 receptor associated kinase 1 [KO:K04730] [EC:]
7189  TRAF6; TNF receptor associated factor 6 [KO:K03175] [EC:]
10454  TAB1; TGF-beta activated kinase 1 (MAP3K7) binding protein 1 [KO:K04403]
23118  TAB2; TGF-beta activated kinase 1 (MAP3K7) binding protein 2 [KO:K04404]
6885  MAP3K7; mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 7 [KO:K04427] [EC:]
1147  CHUK; component of inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B kinase complex [KO:K04467] [EC:]
3551  IKBKB; inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B kinase subunit beta [KO:K07209] [EC:]
8517  IKBKG; inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B kinase regulatory subunit gamma [KO:K07210]
4792  NFKBIA; NFKB inhibitor alpha [KO:K04734]
3439  IFNA1; interferon alpha 1 [KO:K05414]
3440  IFNA2; interferon alpha 2 [KO:K05414]
3441  IFNA4; interferon alpha 4 [KO:K05414]
3442  IFNA5; interferon alpha 5 [KO:K05414]
3443  IFNA6; interferon alpha 6 [KO:K05414]
3444  IFNA7; interferon alpha 7 [KO:K05414]
3445  IFNA8; interferon alpha 8 [KO:K05414]
3446  IFNA10; interferon alpha 10 [KO:K05414]
3447  IFNA13; interferon alpha 13 [KO:K05414]
3448  IFNA14; interferon alpha 14 [KO:K05414]
3449  IFNA16; interferon alpha 16 [KO:K05414]
3451  IFNA17; interferon alpha 17 [KO:K05414]
3452  IFNA21; interferon alpha 21 [KO:K05414]
3456  IFNB1; interferon beta 1 [KO:K05415]
5600  MAPK11; mitogen-activated protein kinase 11 [KO:K04441] [EC:]
6300  MAPK12; mitogen-activated protein kinase 12 [KO:K04441] [EC:]
5603  MAPK13; mitogen-activated protein kinase 13 [KO:K04441] [EC:]
1432  MAPK14; mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 [KO:K04441] [EC:]
5599  MAPK8; mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 [KO:K04440] [EC:]
5602  MAPK10; mitogen-activated protein kinase 10 [KO:K04440] [EC:]
5601  MAPK9; mitogen-activated protein kinase 9 [KO:K04440] [EC:]
115004  CGAS; cyclic GMP-AMP synthase [KO:K17834] [EC:]
340061  STING1; stimulator of interferon response cGAMP interactor 1 [KO:K12654]
29110  TBK1; TANK binding kinase 1 [KO:K05410] [EC:]
3661  IRF3; interferon regulatory factor 3 [KO:K05411]
164668  APOBEC3H; apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic subunit 3H [KO:K18750] [EC:3.5.4.-]
200316  APOBEC3F; apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic subunit 3F [KO:K18750] [EC:3.5.4.-]
100913187  APOBEC3A_B; APOBEC3A and APOBEC3B deletion hybrid [KO:K18750] [EC:3.5.4.-]
140564  APOBEC3D; apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic subunit 3D [KO:K18750] [EC:3.5.4.-]
200315  APOBEC3A; apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic subunit 3A [KO:K18750] [EC:3.5.4.-]
27350  APOBEC3C; apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic subunit 3C [KO:K18750] [EC:3.5.4.-]
60489  APOBEC3G; apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic subunit 3G [KO:K18750] [EC:3.5.4.-]
9582  APOBEC3B; apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic subunit 3B [KO:K18750] [EC:3.5.4.-]
25939  SAMHD1; SAM and HD domain containing deoxynucleoside triphosphate triphosphohydrolase 1 [KO:K22544] [EC:3.1.5.-]
85363  TRIM5; tripartite motif containing 5 [KO:K10648] [EC:]
684  BST2; bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2 [KO:K06731]
7132  TNFRSF1A; TNF receptor superfamily member 1A [KO:K03158]
8737  RIPK1; receptor interacting serine/threonine kinase 1 [KO:K02861] [EC:]
8717  TRADD; TNFRSF1A associated via death domain [KO:K03171]
7188  TRAF5; TNF receptor associated factor 5 [KO:K09849]
7186  TRAF2; TNF receptor associated factor 2 [KO:K03173] [EC:]
5606  MAP2K3; mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3 [KO:K04432] [EC:]
5608  MAP2K6; mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 6 [KO:K04433] [EC:]
5609  MAP2K7; mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7 [KO:K04431] [EC:]
356  FASLG; Fas ligand [KO:K04389]
355  FAS; Fas cell surface death receptor [KO:K04390]
8772  FADD; Fas associated via death domain [KO:K02373]
841  CASP8; caspase 8 [KO:K04398] [EC:]
637  BID; BH3 interacting domain death agonist [KO:K04726]
581  BAX; BCL2 associated X, apoptosis regulator [KO:K02159]
578  BAK1; BCL2 antagonist/killer 1 [KO:K14021]
596  BCL2; BCL2 apoptosis regulator [KO:K02161]
54205  CYCS; cytochrome c, somatic [KO:K08738]
842  CASP9; caspase 9 [KO:K04399] [EC:]
836  CASP3; caspase 3 [KO:K02187] [EC:]
916  CD3E; CD3 epsilon subunit of T-cell receptor complex [KO:K06451]
917  CD3G; CD3 gamma subunit of T-cell receptor complex [KO:K06452]
915  CD3D; CD3 delta subunit of T-cell receptor complex [KO:K06450]
919  CD247; CD247 molecule [KO:K06453]
6890  TAP1; transporter 1, ATP binding cassette subfamily B member [KO:K05653] [EC:]
6891  TAP2; transporter 2, ATP binding cassette subfamily B member [KO:K05654] [EC:]
6892  TAPBP; TAP binding protein [KO:K08058]
2923  PDIA3; protein disulfide isomerase family A member 3 [KO:K08056] [EC:]
811  CALR; calreticulin [KO:K08057]
3105  HLA-A; major histocompatibility complex, class I, A [KO:K06751]
3106  HLA-B; major histocompatibility complex, class I, B [KO:K06751]
3107  HLA-C; major histocompatibility complex, class I, C [KO:K06751]
3134  HLA-F; major histocompatibility complex, class I, F [KO:K06751]
3135  HLA-G; major histocompatibility complex, class I, G [KO:K06751]
3133  HLA-E; major histocompatibility complex, class I, E [KO:K06751]
162  AP1B1; adaptor related protein complex 1 subunit beta 1 [KO:K12392]
164  AP1G1; adaptor related protein complex 1 subunit gamma 1 [KO:K12391]
8906  AP1G2; adaptor related protein complex 1 subunit gamma 2 [KO:K12391]
8907  AP1M1; adaptor related protein complex 1 subunit mu 1 [KO:K12393]
10053  AP1M2; adaptor related protein complex 1 subunit mu 2 [KO:K12393]
1174  AP1S1; adaptor related protein complex 1 subunit sigma 1 [KO:K12394]
8905  AP1S2; adaptor related protein complex 1 subunit sigma 2 [KO:K12394]
130340  AP1S3; adaptor related protein complex 1 subunit sigma 3 [KO:K12395]
567  B2M; beta-2-microglobulin [KO:K08055]
6923  ELOB; elongin B [KO:K03873]
6921  ELOC; elongin C [KO:K03872]
8065  CUL5; cullin 5 [KO:K10612]
9616  RNF7; ring finger protein 7 [KO:K10611]
9730  DCAF1; DDB1 and CUL4 associated factor 1 [KO:K11789] [EC:]
1642  DDB1; damage specific DNA binding protein 1 [KO:K10610]
8450  CUL4B; cullin 4B [KO:K10609]
8451  CUL4A; cullin 4A [KO:K10609]
472  ATM; ATM serine/threonine kinase [KO:K04728] [EC:]
545  ATR; ATR serine/threonine kinase [KO:K06640] [EC:]
1111  CHEK1; checkpoint kinase 1 [KO:K02216] [EC:]
995  CDC25C; cell division cycle 25C [KO:K05867] [EC:]
7465  WEE1; WEE1 G2 checkpoint kinase [KO:K06632] [EC:]
494551  WEE2; WEE2 oocyte meiosis inhibiting kinase [KO:K06632] [EC:]
891  CCNB1; cyclin B1 [KO:K05868]
9133  CCNB2; cyclin B2 [KO:K21770]
85417  CCNB3; cyclin B3 [KO:K21771]
983  CDK1; cyclin dependent kinase 1 [KO:K02087] [EC:]
C00076  Calcium cation
C00165  Diacylglycerol
C01245  D-myo-Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate
C05981  Phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate
C20640  Cyclic GMP-AMP
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HIV persistence: chemokines and their signalling pathways.
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Plasma membrane signaling in HIV-1 infection.
Biochim Biophys Acta 1838:1132-42 (2014)
Wu Y, Yoder A
Chemokine coreceptor signaling in HIV-1 infection and pathogenesis.
PLoS Pathog 5:e1000520 (2009)
Choi WT, Duggineni S, Xu Y, Huang Z, An J
Drug discovery research targeting the CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4).
J Med Chem 55:977-94 (2012)
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LIM kinase 1 modulates cortical actin and CXCR4 cycling and is activated by HIV-1 to initiate viral infection.
J Biol Chem 286:12554-64 (2011)
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Biology of the HIV Nef protein.
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Mechanisms underlying HIV-1 Vpu-mediated viral egress.
Front Microbiol 5:177 (2014)
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Transmembrane domain determinants of CD4 Downregulation by HIV-1 Vpu.
J Virol 86:757-72 (2012)
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The macrophage: a therapeutic target in HIV-1 infection.
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The battle between virus and host: modulation of Toll-like receptor signaling pathways by virus infection.
Mediators Inflamm 2010:184328 (2010)
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HIV replication: a game of hide and sense.
Curr Opin HIV AIDS 11:173-81 (2016)
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Innate immunity against HIV-1 infection.
Nat Immunol 16:554-62 (2015)
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Targeting TNF and TNF Receptor Pathway in HIV-1 Infection: from Immune Activation to Viral Reservoirs.
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Herbein G, Khan KA
Is HIV infection a TNF receptor signalling-driven disease?
Trends Immunol 29:61-7 (2008)
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TNF and TNF receptor superfamily members in HIV infection: new cellular targets for therapy?
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Abbas W, Herbein G
T-Cell Signaling in HIV-1 Infection.
Open Virol J 7:57-71 (2013)
Cummins NW, Badley AD
Mechanisms of HIV-associated lymphocyte apoptosis: 2010.
Cell Death Dis 1:e99 (2010)
Gougeon ML
Apoptosis as an HIV strategy to escape immune attack.
Nat Rev Immunol 3:392-404 (2003)
Fevrier M, Dorgham K, Rebollo A
CD4+ T cell depletion in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection: role of apoptosis.
Viruses 3:586-612 (2011)
Ross TM
Using death to one's advantage: HIV modulation of apoptosis.
Leukemia 15:332-41 (2001)
Hurley JH, Bonifacino JS
Nef-arious goings-on at the Golgi.
Nat Struct Mol Biol 19:661-2 (2012)
Wonderlich ER, Leonard JA, Collins KL
HIV immune evasion disruption of antigen presentation by the HIV Nef protein.
Adv Virus Res 80:103-27 (2011)
Laguette N, Bregnard C, Benichou S, Basmaciogullari S
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type-1, HIV-2 and simian immunodeficiency virus Nef proteins.
Mol Aspects Med 31:418-33 (2010)
Pereira EA, daSilva LL
HIV-1 Nef: Taking Control of Protein Trafficking.
Traffic 17:976-96 (2016)
Sugden SM, Bego MG, Pham TN, Cohen EA
Remodeling of the Host Cell Plasma Membrane by HIV-1 Nef and Vpu: A Strategy to Ensure Viral Fitness and Persistence.
Viruses 8:67 (2016)
Bagga S, Bouchard MJ
Cell cycle regulation during viral infection.
Methods Mol Biol 1170:165-227 (2014)
Andersen JL, Planelles V
The role of Vpr in HIV-1 pathogenesis.
Curr HIV Res 3:43-51 (2005)
Andersen JL, DeHart JL, Zimmerman ES, Ardon O, Kim B, Jacquot G, Benichou S, Planelles V
HIV-1 Vpr-induced apoptosis is cell cycle dependent and requires Bax but not ANT.
PLoS Pathog 2:e127 (2006)
Takaori-Kondo A, Shindo K
HIV-1 Vif: a guardian of the virus that opens up a new era in the research field of restriction factors.
Front Microbiol 4:34 (2013)
Malim MH
APOBEC proteins and intrinsic resistance to HIV-1 infection.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 364:675-87 (2009)
Hultquist JF, Lengyel JA, Refsland EW, LaRue RS, Lackey L, Brown WL, Harris RS
Human and rhesus APOBEC3D, APOBEC3F, APOBEC3G, and APOBEC3H demonstrate a conserved capacity to restrict Vif-deficient HIV-1.
J Virol 85:11220-34 (2011)
hsa03050  Proteasome
hsa04010  MAPK signaling pathway
hsa04020  Calcium signaling pathway
hsa04064  NF-kappa B signaling pathway
hsa04110  Cell cycle
hsa04141  Protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum
hsa04142  Lysosome
hsa04150  mTOR signaling pathway
hsa04151  PI3K-Akt signaling pathway
hsa04210  Apoptosis
hsa04612  Antigen processing and presentation
hsa04620  Toll-like receptor signaling pathway
hsa04623  Cytosolic DNA-sensing pathway
hsa04668  TNF signaling pathway
hsa04810  Regulation of actin cytoskeleton
KO pathway

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