KEGG   PATHWAY: hsa05226
Entry
hsa05226                    Pathway                                
Name
Gastric cancer - Homo sapiens (human)
Description
Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the world's most common cancers. According to Lauren's histological classification gastric cancer is divided into two distinct histological groups - the intestinal and diffuse types. Several genetic changes have been identified in intestinal-type GC. The intestinal metaplasia is characterized by mutations in p53 gene, reduced expression of retinoic acid receptor beta (RAR-beta) and hTERT expression. Gastric adenomas furthermore display mutations in the APC gene, reduced p27 expression and cyclin E amplification. In addition, amplification and overexpression of c-ErbB2, reduced TGF-beta receptor type I (TGFBRI) expression and complete loss of p27 expression are commonly observed in more advanced GC. The main molecular changes observed in diffuse-type GCs include loss of E-cadherin function by mutations in CDH1 and amplification of MET and FGFR2F.
Class
Human Diseases; Cancer: specific types
Pathway map
hsa05226  Gastric cancer
hsa05226

Network
nt06210  ERK signaling
nt06214  PI3K signaling
nt06215  WNT signaling
nt06218  TGFB signaling
nt06230  Cell cycle
nt06232  Telomerase activity
nt06240  Transcription
nt06260  Colorectal cancer
nt06261  Gastric cancer
nt06262  Pancreatic cancer
nt06263  Hepatocellular carcinoma
nt06265  Bladder cancer
nt06266  Non-small cell lung cancer
nt06267  Small cell lung cancer
nt06268  Melanoma
nt06269  Basal cell carcinoma
nt06270  Breast cancer
nt06271  Endometrial cancer
nt06273  Glioma
nt06274  Thyroid cancer
nt06275  Acute myeloid leukemia
nt06276  Chronic myeloid leukemia
  Element
N00012  Mutation-activated KRAS/NRAS to ERK signaling pathway
N00020  Amplified FGFR to RAS-ERK signaling pathway
N00038  Amplified FGFR to PI3K signaling pathway
N00057  Mutation-inactivated APC to Wnt signaling pathway
N00115  Mutation-inactivated TP53 to transcription
N00240  TERT-overexpression to telomerase activity
N00250  CDX2-overexpression to transcriptional activation
N00251  CDX2-overexpression to transcriptional repression
N00252  Amplified ERBB2 to RAS-ERK signaling pathway
N00253  Amplified ERBB2 to PI3K signaling pathway
N00254  CDKN1B-reduced expression to p27-cell cycle G1/S
N00255  Amplified CCNE to cell cycle G1/S
N00256  TGFBR1-reduced expression to TGF-beta signaling pathway
N00257  Loss of CDH1 to beta-catenin signaling pathway
N00258  Mutation-inactivated CDH1 to beta-catenin signaling pathway
N00259  Amplified MET to RAS-ERK signaling pathway
N00260  Amplified MET to PI3K signaling pathway
Disease
H00018  Gastric cancer
Drug
D03257  Trastuzumab (USAN/INN)
Organism
Homo sapiens (human) [GN:hsa]
Gene
1045  CDX2; caudal type homeobox 2 [KO:K22234]
4583  MUC2; mucin 2, oligomeric mucus/gel-forming [KO:K10955]
1015  CDH17; cadherin 17 [KO:K06811]
83998  REG4; regenerating family member 4 [KO:K22244]
5243  ABCB1; ATP binding cassette subfamily B member 1 [KO:K05658] [EC:7.6.2.2]
6469  SHH; sonic hedgehog signaling molecule [KO:K11988]
7157  TP53; tumor protein p53 [KO:K04451]
1026  CDKN1A; cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 1A [KO:K06625]
1647  GADD45A; growth arrest and DNA damage inducible alpha [KO:K04402]
4616  GADD45B; growth arrest and DNA damage inducible beta [KO:K04402]
10912  GADD45G; growth arrest and DNA damage inducible gamma [KO:K04402]
581  BAX; BCL2 associated X, apoptosis regulator [KO:K02159]
578  BAK1; BCL2 antagonist/killer 1 [KO:K14021]
1643  DDB2; damage specific DNA binding protein 2 [KO:K10140]
51426  POLK; DNA polymerase kappa [KO:K03511] [EC:2.7.7.7]
5915  RARB; retinoic acid receptor beta [KO:K08528]
6256  RXRA; retinoid X receptor alpha [KO:K08524]
6257  RXRB; retinoid X receptor beta [KO:K08525]
6258  RXRG; retinoid X receptor gamma [KO:K08526]
7471  WNT1; Wnt family member 1 [KO:K03209]
7472  WNT2; Wnt family member 2 [KO:K00182]
7482  WNT2B; Wnt family member 2B [KO:K00182]
7473  WNT3; Wnt family member 3 [KO:K00312]
89780  WNT3A; Wnt family member 3A [KO:K00312]
54361  WNT4; Wnt family member 4 [KO:K00408]
7474  WNT5A; Wnt family member 5A [KO:K00444]
81029  WNT5B; Wnt family member 5B [KO:K00444]
7475  WNT6; Wnt family member 6 [KO:K00445]
7476  WNT7A; Wnt family member 7A [KO:K00572]
7477  WNT7B; Wnt family member 7B [KO:K00572]
7478  WNT8A; Wnt family member 8A [KO:K00714]
7479  WNT8B; Wnt family member 8B [KO:K00714]
7483  WNT9A; Wnt family member 9A [KO:K01064]
7484  WNT9B; Wnt family member 9B [KO:K01064]
7480  WNT10B; Wnt family member 10B [KO:K01357]
80326  WNT10A; Wnt family member 10A [KO:K01357]
7481  WNT11; Wnt family member 11 [KO:K01384]
51384  WNT16; Wnt family member 16 [KO:K01558]
8321  FZD1; frizzled class receptor 1 [KO:K02432]
8324  FZD7; frizzled class receptor 7 [KO:K02432]
2535  FZD2; frizzled class receptor 2 [KO:K02235]
7976  FZD3; frizzled class receptor 3 [KO:K02329]
8322  FZD4; frizzled class receptor 4 [KO:K02354]
7855  FZD5; frizzled class receptor 5 [KO:K02375]
8325  FZD8; frizzled class receptor 8 [KO:K02375]
8323  FZD6; frizzled class receptor 6 [KO:K02376]
11211  FZD10; frizzled class receptor 10 [KO:K02842]
8326  FZD9; frizzled class receptor 9 [KO:K02842]
4041  LRP5; LDL receptor related protein 5 [KO:K03068]
4040  LRP6; LDL receptor related protein 6 [KO:K03068]
1857  DVL3; dishevelled segment polarity protein 3 [KO:K02353]
1856  DVL2; dishevelled segment polarity protein 2 [KO:K02353]
1855  DVL1; dishevelled segment polarity protein 1 [KO:K02353]
10023  FRAT1; FRAT regulator of WNT signaling pathway 1 [KO:K03069]
23401  FRAT2; FRAT regulator of WNT signaling pathway 2 [KO:K03096]
2932  GSK3B; glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta [KO:K03083] [EC:2.7.11.26]
8312  AXIN1; axin 1 [KO:K02157]
8313  AXIN2; axin 2 [KO:K04385]
324  APC; APC regulator of WNT signaling pathway [KO:K02085]
10297  APC2; APC regulator of WNT signaling pathway 2 [KO:K02085]
1499  CTNNB1; catenin beta 1 [KO:K02105]
122011  CSNK1A1L; casein kinase 1 alpha 1 like [KO:K08957] [EC:2.7.11.1]
1452  CSNK1A1; casein kinase 1 alpha 1 [KO:K08957] [EC:2.7.11.1]
6932  TCF7; transcription factor 7 [KO:K02620]
83439  TCF7L1; transcription factor 7 like 1 [KO:K04490]
6934  TCF7L2; transcription factor 7 like 2 [KO:K04491]
51176  LEF1; lymphoid enhancer binding factor 1 [KO:K04492]
4609  MYC; MYC proto-oncogene, bHLH transcription factor [KO:K04377]
595  CCND1; cyclin D1 [KO:K04503]
7015  TERT; telomerase reverse transcriptase [KO:K11126] [EC:2.7.7.49]
7012  TERC; telomerase RNA component [KO:K22183]
1950  EGF; epidermal growth factor [KO:K04357]
1956  EGFR; epidermal growth factor receptor [KO:K04361] [EC:2.7.10.1]
2064  ERBB2; erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 [KO:K05083] [EC:2.7.10.1]
6464  SHC1; SHC adaptor protein 1 [KO:K06279]
25759  SHC2; SHC adaptor protein 2 [KO:K17447]
53358  SHC3; SHC adaptor protein 3 [KO:K17448]
399694  SHC4; SHC adaptor protein 4 [KO:K17449]
2885  GRB2; growth factor receptor bound protein 2 [KO:K04364]
6654  SOS1; SOS Ras/Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factor 1 [KO:K03099]
6655  SOS2; SOS Ras/Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 2 [KO:K03099]
3265  HRAS; HRas proto-oncogene, GTPase [KO:K02833]
3845  KRAS; KRAS proto-oncogene, GTPase [KO:K07827]
4893  NRAS; NRAS proto-oncogene, GTPase [KO:K07828]
369  ARAF; A-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase [KO:K08845] [EC:2.7.11.1]
673  BRAF; B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase [KO:K04365] [EC:2.7.11.1]
5894  RAF1; Raf-1 proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase [KO:K04366] [EC:2.7.11.1]
5604  MAP2K1; mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 [KO:K04368] [EC:2.7.12.2]
5605  MAP2K2; mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2 [KO:K04369] [EC:2.7.12.2]
5594  MAPK1; mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 [KO:K04371] [EC:2.7.11.24]
5595  MAPK3; mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 [KO:K04371] [EC:2.7.11.24]
5290  PIK3CA; phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha [KO:K00922] [EC:2.7.1.153]
5293  PIK3CD; phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit delta [KO:K00922] [EC:2.7.1.153]
5291  PIK3CB; phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit beta [KO:K00922] [EC:2.7.1.153]
5295  PIK3R1; phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 1 [KO:K02649]
5296  PIK3R2; phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 2 [KO:K02649]
8503  PIK3R3; phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 3 [KO:K02649]
207  AKT1; AKT serine/threonine kinase 1 [KO:K04456] [EC:2.7.11.1]
208  AKT2; AKT serine/threonine kinase 2 [KO:K04456] [EC:2.7.11.1]
10000  AKT3; AKT serine/threonine kinase 3 [KO:K04456] [EC:2.7.11.1]
2475  MTOR; mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase [KO:K07203] [EC:2.7.11.1]
6198  RPS6KB1; ribosomal protein S6 kinase B1 [KO:K04688] [EC:2.7.11.1]
6199  RPS6KB2; ribosomal protein S6 kinase B2 [KO:K04688] [EC:2.7.11.1]
596  BCL2; BCL2 apoptosis regulator [KO:K02161]
4292  MLH1; mutL homolog 1 [KO:K08734]
1027  CDKN1B; cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 1B [KO:K06624]
1017  CDK2; cyclin dependent kinase 2 [KO:K02206] [EC:2.7.11.22]
898  CCNE1; cyclin E1 [KO:K06626]
9134  CCNE2; cyclin E2 [KO:K06626]
5925  RB1; RB transcriptional corepressor 1 [KO:K06618]
1869  E2F1; E2F transcription factor 1 [KO:K17454]
1870  E2F2; E2F transcription factor 2 [KO:K09389]
1871  E2F3; E2F transcription factor 3 [KO:K06620]
7040  TGFB1; transforming growth factor beta 1 [KO:K13375]
7042  TGFB2; transforming growth factor beta 2 [KO:K13376]
7043  TGFB3; transforming growth factor beta 3 [KO:K13377]
7046  TGFBR1; transforming growth factor beta receptor 1 [KO:K04674] [EC:2.7.11.30]
7048  TGFBR2; transforming growth factor beta receptor 2 [KO:K04388] [EC:2.7.11.30]
4087  SMAD2; SMAD family member 2 [KO:K04500]
4088  SMAD3; SMAD family member 3 [KO:K23605]
4089  SMAD4; SMAD family member 4 [KO:K04501]
1030  CDKN2B; cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 2B [KO:K04685]
999  CDH1; cadherin 1 [KO:K05689]
29119  CTNNA3; catenin alpha 3 [KO:K05691]
1495  CTNNA1; catenin alpha 1 [KO:K05691]
1496  CTNNA2; catenin alpha 2 [KO:K05691]
3728  JUP; junction plakoglobin [KO:K10056]
3082  HGF; hepatocyte growth factor [KO:K05460]
4233  MET; MET proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase [KO:K05099] [EC:2.7.10.1]
2246  FGF1; fibroblast growth factor 1 [KO:K18496]
2247  FGF2; fibroblast growth factor 2 [KO:K18497]
2248  FGF3; fibroblast growth factor 3 [KO:K04358]
2249  FGF4; fibroblast growth factor 4 [KO:K04358]
8822  FGF17; fibroblast growth factor 17 [KO:K04358]
2251  FGF6; fibroblast growth factor 6 [KO:K04358]
2252  FGF7; fibroblast growth factor 7 [KO:K04358]
2253  FGF8; fibroblast growth factor 8 [KO:K04358]
2254  FGF9; fibroblast growth factor 9 [KO:K04358]
2255  FGF10; fibroblast growth factor 10 [KO:K04358]
8823  FGF16; fibroblast growth factor 16 [KO:K04358]
2250  FGF5; fibroblast growth factor 5 [KO:K04358]
8817  FGF18; fibroblast growth factor 18 [KO:K04358]
26281  FGF20; fibroblast growth factor 20 [KO:K04358]
27006  FGF22; fibroblast growth factor 22 [KO:K04358]
9965  FGF19; fibroblast growth factor 19 [KO:K22603]
26291  FGF21; fibroblast growth factor 21 [KO:K22429]
8074  FGF23; fibroblast growth factor 23 [KO:K22428]
2263  FGFR2; fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 [KO:K05093] [EC:2.7.10.1]
2549  GAB1; GRB2 associated binding protein 1 [KO:K09593]
Compound
C00039  DNA
C00777  Retinoate
C05981  Phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate
C15493  9-cis-Retinoic acid
Reference
  Authors
Tan P, Yeoh KG
  Title
Genetics and Molecular Pathogenesis of Gastric Adenocarcinoma.
  Journal
Gastroenterology 149:1153-1162.e3 (2015)
DOI:10.1053/j.gastro.2015.05.059
Reference
  Authors
Riquelme I, Saavedra K, Espinoza JA, Weber H, Garcia P, Nervi B, Garrido M, Corvalan AH, Roa JC, Bizama C
  Title
Molecular classification of gastric cancer: Towards a pathway-driven targeted therapy.
  Journal
Oncotarget 6:24750-79 (2015)
DOI:10.18632/oncotarget.4990
Reference
  Authors
Stock M, Otto F
  Title
Gene deregulation in gastric cancer.
  Journal
Gene 360:1-19 (2005)
DOI:10.1016/j.gene.2005.06.026
Reference
  Authors
Panani AD
  Title
Cytogenetic and molecular aspects of gastric cancer: clinical implications.
  Journal
Cancer Lett 266:99-115 (2008)
DOI:10.1016/j.canlet.2008.02.053
Reference
  Authors
Vauhkonen M, Vauhkonen H, Sipponen P
  Title
Pathology and molecular biology of gastric cancer.
  Journal
Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 20:651-74 (2006)
DOI:10.1016/j.bpg.2006.03.016
Reference
  Authors
Smith MG, Hold GL, Tahara E, El-Omar EM.
  Title
Cellular and molecular aspects of gastric cancer.
  Journal
World J Gastroenterol 12:2979-90 (2006)
DOI:10.3748/wjg.v12.i19.2979
Reference
  Authors
Zheng L, Wang L, Ajani J, Xie K.
  Title
Molecular basis of gastric cancer development and progression.
  Journal
Gastric Cancer 7:61-77 (2004)
DOI:10.1007/s10120-004-0277-4
Reference
  Authors
Yuasa Y
  Title
Control of gut differentiation and intestinal-type gastric carcinogenesis.
  Journal
Nat Rev Cancer 3:592-600 (2003)
DOI:10.1038/nrc1141
Reference
  Authors
Wessler S, Krisch LM, Elmer DP, Aberger F
  Title
From inflammation to gastric cancer - the importance of Hedgehog/GLI signaling in Helicobacter pylori-induced chronic inflammatory and neoplastic diseases.
  Journal
Cell Commun Signal 15:15 (2017)
DOI:10.1186/s12964-017-0171-4
Reference
  Authors
Yan LH, Wei WY, Xie YB, Xiao Q
  Title
New insights into the functions and localization of the homeotic gene CDX2 in gastric cancer.
  Journal
World J Gastroenterol 20:3960-6 (2014)
DOI:10.3748/wjg.v20.i14.3960
Reference
  Authors
Hayashi K, Yokozaki H, Goodison S, Oue N, Suzuki T, Lotan R, Yasui W, Tahara E
  Title
Inactivation of retinoic acid receptor beta by promoter CpG hypermethylation in gastric cancer.
  Journal
Differentiation 68:13-21 (2001)
DOI:10.1046/j.1432-0436.2001.068001013.x
Reference
  Authors
Li X, Wu WK, Xing R, Wong SH, Liu Y, Fang X, Zhang Y, Wang M, Wang J, Li L, Zhou Y, Tang S, Peng S, Qiu K, Chen L, Chen K, Yang H, Zhang W, Chan MT, Lu Y, Sung JJ, Yu J
  Title
Distinct Subtypes of Gastric Cancer Defined by Molecular Characterization Include Novel Mutational Signatures with Prognostic Capability.
  Journal
Cancer Res 76:1724-32 (2016)
DOI:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-15-2443
Reference
  Authors
Wadhwa R, Song S, Lee JS, Yao Y, Wei Q, Ajani JA
  Title
Gastric cancer-molecular and clinical dimensions.
  Journal
Nat Rev Clin Oncol 10:643-55 (2013)
DOI:10.1038/nrclinonc.2013.170
Reference
  Authors
Bertotti A, Sassi F
  Title
Molecular Pathways: Sensitivity and Resistance to Anti-EGFR Antibodies.
  Journal
Clin Cancer Res 21:3377-83 (2015)
DOI:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-14-0848
Reference
  Authors
Appleman LJ
  Title
MET signaling pathway: a rational target for cancer therapy.
  Journal
J Clin Oncol 29:4837-8 (2011)
DOI:10.1200/JCO.2011.37.7929
Reference
  Authors
Eder JP, Vande Woude GF, Boerner SA, LoRusso PM
  Title
Novel therapeutic inhibitors of the c-Met signaling pathway in cancer.
  Journal
Clin Cancer Res 15:2207-14 (2009)
DOI:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-08-1306
Reference
  Authors
Feng Y, Ma PC
  Title
Anti-MET targeted therapy has come of age: the first durable complete response with MetMAb in metastatic gastric cancer.
  Journal
Cancer Discov 1:550-4 (2011)
DOI:10.1158/2159-8290.CD-11-0289
Reference
  Authors
Katoh M, Nakagama H
  Title
FGF receptors: cancer biology and therapeutics.
  Journal
Med Res Rev 34:280-300 (2014)
DOI:10.1002/med.21288
Reference
  Authors
Katoh M
  Title
FGFR2 abnormalities underlie a spectrum of bone, skin, and cancer pathologies.
  Journal
J Invest Dermatol 129:1861-7 (2009)
DOI:10.1038/jid.2009.97
Reference
  Authors
Katoh M
  Title
Genetic alterations of FGF receptors: an emerging field in clinical cancer diagnostics and therapeutics.
  Journal
Expert Rev Anticancer Ther 10:1375-9 (2010)
DOI:10.1586/era.10.128
Related
pathway
hsa04010  MAPK signaling pathway
hsa04110  Cell cycle
hsa04115  p53 signaling pathway
hsa04151  PI3K-Akt signaling pathway
hsa04310  Wnt signaling pathway
hsa04350  TGF-beta signaling pathway
hsa04520  Adherens junction
hsa05120  Epithelial cell signaling in Helicobacter pylori infection
KO pathway
ko05226   
LinkDB

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