KEGG   PATHWAY: map04721
Entry
map04721                    Pathway                                

Name
Synaptic vesicle cycle
Description
Communication between neurons is mediated by the release of neurotransmitter from synaptic vesicles (SVs). At the nerve terminal, SVs cycle through repetitive episodes of exocytosis and endocytosis. SVs are filled with neurotransmitters by active transport. The loaded SVs are then docked at a specialized region of the presynaptic plasma membrane known as the active zone, where they undergo a priming reaction. Upon arrival of an action potential, Ca2+ enters through voltage-gated channels and neurotransmitter is released by exocytosis, usually in less than a millisecond. After fusion, the vesicle is retrieved by endocytosis and reloaded for another round of exocytosis.
Class
Organismal Systems; Nervous system
Pathway map
map04721  Synaptic vesicle cycle
map04721

Other DBs
GO: 0016079 0048488
Reference
  Authors
Li L, Chin LS
  Title
The molecular machinery of synaptic vesicle exocytosis.
  Journal
Cell Mol Life Sci 60:942-60 (2003)
DOI:10.1007/s00018-003-2240-7
Reference
  Authors
Nestler EJ, Hyman SE, Malenka RC.
  Title
Molecular neuropharmacology: A foundation for clinical neuroscience
  Journal
The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. (2001)
Reference
  Authors
Chapman ER
  Title
How does synaptotagmin trigger neurotransmitter release?
  Journal
Annu Rev Biochem 77:615-41 (2008)
DOI:10.1146/annurev.biochem.77.062005.101135
Reference
  Authors
Benfenati F, Onofri F, Giovedi S
  Title
Protein-protein interactions and protein modules in the control of neurotransmitter release.
  Journal
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 354:243-57 (1999)
DOI:10.1098/rstb.1999.0376
Reference
  Authors
de Saint Basile G, Menasche G, Fischer A
  Title
Molecular mechanisms of biogenesis and exocytosis of cytotoxic granules.
  Journal
Nat Rev Immunol 10:568-79 (2010)
DOI:10.1038/nri2803
Reference
  Authors
Carr CM, Munson M
  Title
Tag team action at the synapse.
  Journal
EMBO Rep 8:834-8 (2007)
DOI:10.1038/sj.embor.7401051
Reference
  Authors
Sudhof TC
  Title
The synaptic vesicle cycle.
  Journal
Annu Rev Neurosci 27:509-47 (2004)
DOI:10.1146/annurev.neuro.26.041002.131412
Reference
  Authors
Gundelfinger ED, Kessels MM, Qualmann B
  Title
Temporal and spatial coordination of exocytosis and endocytosis.
  Journal
Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 4:127-39 (2003)
DOI:10.1038/nrm1016
Reference
  Authors
Tang J, Maximov A, Shin OH, Dai H, Rizo J, Sudhof TC
  Title
A complexin/synaptotagmin 1 switch controls fast synaptic vesicle exocytosis.
  Journal
Cell 126:1175-87 (2006)
DOI:10.1016/j.cell.2006.08.030
Reference
  Authors
Chapman ER
  Title
Synaptotagmin: a Ca(2+) sensor that triggers exocytosis?
  Journal
Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 3:498-508 (2002)
DOI:10.1038/nrm855
Reference
PMID:7791897
  Authors
Sudhof TC
  Title
The synaptic vesicle cycle: a cascade of protein-protein interactions.
  Journal
Nature 375:645-53 (1995)
DOI:10.1038/375645a0
Reference
  Authors
Rizo J, Sudhof TC
  Title
Snares and Munc18 in synaptic vesicle fusion.
  Journal
Nat Rev Neurosci 3:641-53 (2002)
DOI:10.1038/nrn898
Reference
  Authors
Malsam J, Kreye S, Sollner TH
  Title
Membrane fusion: SNAREs and regulation.
  Journal
Cell Mol Life Sci 65:2814-32 (2008)
DOI:10.1007/s00018-008-8352-3
Related
pathway
map04144  Endocytosis
map04724  Glutamatergic synapse
map04725  Cholinergic synapse
map04726  Serotonergic synapse
map04727  GABAergic synapse
map04728  Dopaminergic synapse
KO pathway
ko04721   
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