KEGG   PATHWAY: mmu05144
Entry
mmu05144                    Pathway                                
Name
Malaria - Mus musculus (house mouse)
Description
Plasmodium protozoa are parasites that account for malaria infection. Sporozoite forms of the parasite are injected by mosquito bites under the skin and are carried to the liver where they develop into the merozoite form.
Sporozoite invasion of hepatocytes is mediated by parasite surface protein like CSP. Subsequent infection into red blood cells (RBCs) by merozoites causes malaria disease via aberrant cytokine production and sequestration of parasite-infected red blood cells (pRBCs) to host endothelium. Microvasculature sequestration in the brain brings about cerebral malaria that can results in death or persisting neurological impairment. PfEMP1 has been suggested as the key adhesive molecule of pRBCs.
Class
Human Diseases; Infectious disease: parasitic
Pathway map
mmu05144  Malaria
mmu05144

Organism
Mus musculus (house mouse) [GN:mmu]
Gene
20969  Sdc1; syndecan 1 [KO:K06257]
15529  Sdc2; syndecan 2 [KO:K16336]
16971  Lrp1; low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 [KO:K04550]
12520  Cd81; CD81 antigen [KO:K06508]
15234  Hgf; hepatocyte growth factor [KO:K05460]
17295  Met; met proto-oncogene [KO:K05099] [EC:2.7.10.1]
13349  Ackr1; atypical chemokine receptor 1 (Duffy blood group) [KO:K06574]
14934  Gypa; glycophorin A [KO:K06575]
71683  Gypc; glycophorin C [KO:K06576]
110257  Hba-a2; hemoglobin alpha, adult chain 2 [KO:K13822]
15122  Hba-a1; hemoglobin alpha, adult chain 1 [KO:K13822]
15129  Hbb-b1; hemoglobin, beta adult major chain [KO:K13823]
15130  Hbb-b2; hemoglobin, beta adult minor chain [KO:K13823]
101488143  Hbb-bt; hemoglobin, beta adult t chain [KO:K13823]
100503605  Hbb-bs; hemoglobin, beta adult s chain [KO:K13823]
436003  Hbb-bh2; hemoglobin beta, bh2 [KO:K13823]
81897  Tlr9; toll-like receptor 9 [KO:K10161]
17874  Myd88; myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 [KO:K04729]
24088  Tlr2; toll-like receptor 2 [KO:K10159]
21898  Tlr4; toll-like receptor 4 [KO:K10160]
16153  Il10; interleukin 10 [KO:K05443]
21803  Tgfb1; transforming growth factor, beta 1 [KO:K13375]
21808  Tgfb2; transforming growth factor, beta 2 [KO:K13376]
21809  Tgfb3; transforming growth factor, beta 3 [KO:K13377]
16193  Il6; interleukin 6 [KO:K05405]
20296  Ccl2; chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 [KO:K14624]
20293  Ccl12; chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 12 [KO:K14624]
12985  Csf3; colony stimulating factor 3 (granulocyte) [KO:K05423]
16176  Il1b; interleukin 1 beta [KO:K04519]
21926  Tnf; tumor necrosis factor [KO:K03156]
16159  Il12a; interleukin 12a [KO:K05406]
16173  Il18; interleukin 18 [KO:K05482]
17057  Klrb1a; killer cell lectin-like receptor subfamily B member 1A [KO:K06543]
17059  Klrb1c; killer cell lectin-like receptor subfamily B member 1C [KO:K06543]
232408  Klrb1f; killer cell lectin-like receptor subfamily B member 1F [KO:K06543]
80782  Klrb1b; killer cell lectin-like receptor subfamily B member 1B [KO:K06543]
100043861  Klrb1; killer cell lectin-like receptor subfamily B member 1 [KO:K06543]
27007  Klrk1; killer cell lectin-like receptor subfamily K, member 1 [KO:K06728]
16635  Klra4; killer cell lectin-like receptor, subfamily A, member 4 [KO:K23459]
15978  Ifng; interferon gamma [KO:K04687]
12491  Cd36; CD36 molecule [KO:K06259]
12946  Cr1l; complement component (3b/4b) receptor 1-like [KO:K04011]
18613  Pecam1; platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 [KO:K06471]
22329  Vcam1; vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 [KO:K06527]
21825  Thbs1; thrombospondin 1 [KO:K16857]
12845  Comp; cartilage oligomeric matrix protein [KO:K04659]
21826  Thbs2; thrombospondin 2 [KO:K04659]
21827  Thbs3; thrombospondin 3 [KO:K04659]
21828  Thbs4; thrombospondin 4 [KO:K04659]
20339  Sele; selectin, endothelial cell [KO:K06494]
16408  Itgal; integrin alpha L [KO:K05718]
16414  Itgb2; integrin beta 2 [KO:K06464]
16415  Itgb2l; integrin beta 2-like [KO:K06464]
15894  Icam1; intercellular adhesion molecule 1 [KO:K06490]
21947  Cd40lg; CD40 ligand [KO:K03161]
21939  Cd40; CD40 antigen [KO:K03160]
20344  Selp; selectin, platelet [KO:K06496]
Compound
C00533  Nitric oxide
C00634  Chondroitin 4-sulfate
G00052  Type II B antigen
G00054  Type II A antigen
G10505  Hyaluronic acid
Reference
  Authors
Morahan BJ, Wang L, Coppel RL
  Title
No TRAP, no invasion.
  Journal
Trends Parasitol 25:77-84 (2009)
DOI:10.1016/j.pt.2008.11.004
Reference
PMID:8920859
  Authors
Shakibaei M, Frevert U
  Title
Dual interaction of the malaria circumsporozoite protein with the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) and heparan sulfate proteoglycans.
  Journal
J Exp Med 184:1699-711 (1996)
DOI:10.1084/jem.184.5.1699
Reference
  Authors
Silvie O, Franetich JF, Renia L, Mazier D
  Title
Malaria sporozoite: migrating for a living.
  Journal
Trends Mol Med 10:97-100; discussion 100-1 (2004)
DOI:10.1016/j.molmed.2004.01.004
Reference
  Authors
Mota MM, Giordano S, Rodriguez A
  Title
Targeting Plasmodium host cells: survival within hepatocytes.
  Journal
Trends Mol Med 10:487-92 (2004)
DOI:10.1016/j.molmed.2004.08.003
Reference
  Authors
Cowman AF, Crabb BS
  Title
The Plasmodium falciparum genome--a blueprint for erythrocyte invasion.
  Journal
Science 298:126-8 (2002)
DOI:10.1126/science.1078169
Reference
  Authors
O'Donnell RA, Blackman MJ
  Title
The role of malaria merozoite proteases in red blood cell invasion.
  Journal
Curr Opin Microbiol 8:422-7 (2005)
DOI:10.1016/j.mib.2005.06.018
Reference
  Authors
Iyer J, Gruner AC, Renia L, Snounou G, Preiser PR
  Title
Invasion of host cells by malaria parasites: a tale of two protein families.
  Journal
Mol Microbiol 65:231-49 (2007)
DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2958.2007.05791.x
Reference
  Authors
Chitnis CE
  Title
Molecular insights into receptors used by malaria parasites for erythrocyte invasion.
  Journal
Curr Opin Hematol 8:85-91 (2001)
DOI:10.1097/00062752-200103000-00005
Reference
  Authors
Rasti N, Wahlgren M, Chen Q
  Title
Molecular aspects of malaria pathogenesis.
  Journal
FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 41:9-26 (2004)
DOI:10.1016/j.femsim.2004.01.010
Reference
  Authors
Clark IA, Rockett KA, Cowden WB
  Title
Proposed link between cytokines, nitric oxide and human cerebral malaria.
  Journal
Parasitol Today 7:205-7 (1991)
DOI:10.1016/0169-4758(91)90142-B
Reference
  Authors
Hisaeda H, Tetsutani K, Imai T, Moriya C, Tu L, Hamano S, Duan X, Chou B, Ishida H, Aramaki A, Shen J, Ishii KJ, Coban C, Akira S, Takeda K, Yasutomo K, Torii M, Himeno K
  Title
Malaria parasites require TLR9 signaling for immune evasion by activating regulatory T cells.
  Journal
J Immunol 180:2496-503 (2008)
DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.180.4.2496
Reference
  Authors
Chen Q, Schlichtherle M, Wahlgren M
  Title
Molecular aspects of severe malaria.
  Journal
Clin Microbiol Rev 13:439-50 (2000)
DOI:10.1128/CMR.13.3.439-450.2000
Reference
  Authors
Miller LH, Baruch DI, Marsh K, Doumbo OK
  Title
The pathogenic basis of malaria.
  Journal
Nature 415:673-9 (2002)
DOI:10.1038/415673a
Reference
  Authors
Faille D, El-Assaad F, Alessi MC, Fusai T, Combes V, Grau GE
  Title
Platelet-endothelial cell interactions in cerebral malaria: the end of a cordial understanding.
  Journal
Thromb Haemost 102:1093-102 (2009)
DOI:10.1160/TH09-05-0337
Reference
  Authors
Schofield L, Grau GE
  Title
Immunological processes in malaria pathogenesis.
  Journal
Nat Rev Immunol 5:722-35 (2005)
DOI:10.1038/nri1686
Reference
  Authors
Ishino T, Yano K, Chinzei Y, Yuda M
  Title
Cell-passage activity is required for the malarial parasite to cross the liver sinusoidal cell layer.
  Journal
PLoS Biol 2:E4 (2004)
DOI:10.1371/journal.pbio.0020004
Reference
  Authors
Kariu T, Ishino T, Yano K, Chinzei Y, Yuda M
  Title
CelTOS, a novel malarial protein that mediates transmission to mosquito and vertebrate hosts.
  Journal
Mol Microbiol 59:1369-79 (2006)
DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2958.2005.05024.x
Reference
  Authors
Cox D, McConkey S
  Title
The role of platelets in the pathogenesis of cerebral malaria.
  Journal
Cell Mol Life Sci 67:557-68 (2010)
DOI:10.1007/s00018-009-0211-3
Related
pathway
mmu04210  Apoptosis
mmu04514  Cell adhesion molecules
mmu04610  Complement and coagulation cascades
mmu04620  Toll-like receptor signaling pathway
KO pathway
ko05144   
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