KEGG   PATHWAY: rn00920
Entry
rn00920                     Pathway                                
Name
Sulfur metabolism
Description
Sulfur is an essential element for life and the metabolism of organic sulfur compounds plays an important role in the global sulfur cycle. Sulfur occurs in various oxidation states ranging from +6 in sulfate to -2 in sulfide (H2S). Sulfate reduction can occur in both an energy consuming assimilatory pathway and an energy producing dissimilatory pathway. The assimilatory pathway, which is found in a wide range of organisms, produces reduced sulfur compounds for the biosynthesis of S-containing amino acids and does not lead to direct excretion of sulfide. In the dissimilatory pathway, which is restricted to obligatory anaerobic bacterial and archaeal lineages, sulfate (or sulfur) is the terminal electron acceptor of the respiratory chain producing large quantities of inorganic sulfide. Both pathways start from the activation of sulfate by reaction with ATP to form adenylyl sulfate (APS). In the assimilatory pathway [MD:M00176] APS is converted to 3'-phosphoadenylyl sulfate (PAPS) and then reduced to sulfite, and sulfite is further reduced to sulfide by the assimilatory sulfite reductase. In the dissimilatory pathway [MD:M00596] APS is directly reduced to sulfite, and sulfite is further reduced to sulfide by the dissimilatory sulfite reductase. The capacity for oxidation of sulfur is quite widespread among bacteria and archaea, comprising phototrophs and chemolithoautotrophs. The SOX (sulfur-oxidation) system [MD:M00595] is a well-known sulfur oxidation pathway and is found in both photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Green sulfur bacteria and purple sulfur bacteria carry out anoxygenic photosynthesis with reduced sulfur compounds such as sulfide and elemental sulfur, as well as thiosulfate (in some species with the SOX system), as the electron donor for photoautotrophic growth. In some chemolithoautotrophic sulfur oxidizers (such as Thiobacillus denitrificans), it has been suggested that dissimilatory sulfur reduction enzymes operate in the reverse direction, forming a sulfur oxidation pathway from sulfite to APS and then to sulfate.
Class
Metabolism; Energy metabolism
Pathway map
rn00920  Sulfur metabolism
rn00920

Module
M00021  Cysteine biosynthesis, serine => cysteine [PATH:rn00920]
M00176  Assimilatory sulfate reduction, sulfate => H2S [PATH:rn00920]
M00595  Thiosulfate oxidation by SOX complex, thiosulfate => sulfate [PATH:rn00920]
M00596  Dissimilatory sulfate reduction, sulfate => H2S [PATH:rn00920]
Other DBs
GO: 0006790
Reaction
R00295  trithionate: (acceptor) oxidoreductase
R00507  3'-phosphoadenylyl-sulfate sulfohydrolase
R00508  3'-phospho-5'-adenylyl sulfate 3'-phosphohydrolase
R00509  ATP:adenylylsulfate 3'-phosphotransferase
R00528  sulfite:ferricytochrome-c oxidoreductase
R00529  ATP:sulfate adenylyltransferase
R00530  ADP:sulfate adenylyltransferase
R00531  Adenylylsulfate sulfohydrolase
R00533  Sulfite:oxygen oxidoreductase
R00586  acetyl-CoA:L-serine O-acetyltransferase
R00858  hydrogen-sulfide:NADP+ oxidoreductase
R00859  Hydrogen-sulfide:ferredoxin oxidoreductase
R00861  hydrogen-sulfide:[DsrC sulfur-carrier protein],acceptor oxidoreductase
R00897  O3-acetyl-L-serine:hydrogen-sulfide 2-amino-2-carboxyethyltransferase
R01283  L-homocysteine hydrogen-sulfide-lyase (deaminating; 2-oxobutanoate-forming)
R01288  O4-succinyl-L-homoserine:hydrogen sulfide S-(3-amino-3-carboxypropyl)transferase
R01777  Succinyl-CoA:L-homoserine O-succinyltransferase
R01851  Methanethiol:oxygen oxidoreductase
R01930  Trithionate thiosulfohydrolase
R01931  thiosulfate:cyanide sulfurtranserase
R02021  adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate,sulfite:oxidized-thioredoxin oxidoreductase (3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate -forming)
R02574  S,S-Dimethyl-beta-propiothetin dimethyl-sulfide-lyase
R03533  donor:sulfur oxidoreductase
R05072  Thiosulfate:dithioerythritol sulfurtransferase
R05320  Taurine, 2-oxoglutarate:O2 oxidoreductase (sulfite-forming)
R05717  AMP,sulfite:glutathione-disulfide oxidoreductase (adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate-forming)
R07177  thiosulfate:6-decylubiquinone oxidoreductase
R07210  alkanesulfonate, reduced-FMN:oxygen oxidoreductase
R07365  sulfur:oxygen oxidoreductase (hydrogen-sulfide- and sulfite-forming)
R08553  AMP,sulfite:acceptor oxidoreductase (adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate-forming)
R08678  S-sulfanylglutathione:oxygen oxidoreductase
R09498  dimethylsulfone reductase
R09499  hydrogen-sulfide:flavocytochrome c oxidoreductase
R09500  dimethyl sulfide:ferricytochrome-c2 oxidoreductase
R09501  dimethyl sulfide:menaquinone oxidoreductase
R09513  methanesulfonate,NADH:oxygen oxidoreductase
R09786  dimethyl sulfide,NADH:oxygen oxidoreductase
R09997  methanethiol:coenzyme M methyltransferase
R10146   
R10149   
R10150   
R10151   
R10152  sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase
R10203   
R10206  methanesulfonate,FMNH2:oxygen oxidoreductase
R10333  S,S-dimethyl-beta-propiothetin:tetrahydrofolate S-methyltransferase
R10390  H2:polysulfide oxidoreductase
R10820  3-(methylthio)propanoate:CoA ligase (AMP-forming)
R10936  3-(methylthio)acryloyl-CoA hydratase
R11130  3-(methylsulfanyl)propanoyl-CoA:acceptor 2-oxidoreductase
R11487  sulfite:quinone oxidoreductase
R11546  S-adenosyl-L-methionine:methanethiol S-methyltransferase
R11929  sulfide:glutathione,quinone oxidoreductase
Compound
C00033  Acetate
C00042  Succinate
C00053  3'-Phosphoadenylyl sulfate
C00054  Adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate
C00059  Sulfate
C00065  L-Serine
C00084  Acetaldehyde
C00087  Sulfur
C00094  Sulfite
C00097  L-Cysteine
C00155  L-Homocysteine
C00224  Adenylyl sulfate
C00245  Taurine
C00263  L-Homoserine
C00283  Hydrogen sulfide
C00320  Thiosulfate
C00409  Methanethiol
C00580  Dimethyl sulfide
C00979  O-Acetyl-L-serine
C01118  O-Succinyl-L-homoserine
C01861  Trithionate
C02084  Tetrathionate
C03920  2-(Methylthio)ethanesulfonate
C04022  S,S-Dimethyl-beta-propiothetin
C08276  3-(Methylthio)propanoate
C11142  Dimethyl sulfone
C11143  Dimethyl sulfoxide
C11145  Methanesulfonic acid
C15521  Alkanesulfonate
C17267  S-Sulfanylglutathione
C19692  Polysulfide
C20870  3-(Methylthio)propanoyl-CoA
C20955  3-(Methylthio)acryloyl-CoA
Reference
  Authors
Grein F, Ramos AR, Venceslau SS, Pereira IA
  Title
Unifying concepts in anaerobic respiration: Insights from dissimilatory sulfur metabolism.
  Journal
Biochim Biophys Acta 1827:145-60 (2013)
DOI:10.1016/j.bbabio.2012.09.001
Reference
  Authors
Fauque GD, Barton LL
  Title
Hemoproteins in dissimilatory sulfate- and sulfur-reducing prokaryotes.
  Journal
Adv Microb Physiol 60:1-90 (2012)
DOI:10.1016/B978-0-12-398264-3.00001-2
Reference
  Authors
Sakurai H, Ogawa T, Shiga M, Inoue K
  Title
Inorganic sulfur oxidizing system in green sulfur bacteria.
  Journal
Photosynth Res 104:163-76 (2010)
DOI:10.1007/s11120-010-9531-2
Reference
  Authors
Falkenby LG, Szymanska M, Holkenbrink C, Habicht KS, Andersen JS, Miller M, Frigaard NU
  Title
Quantitative proteomics of Chlorobaculum tepidum: insights into the sulfur metabolism of a phototrophic green sulfur bacterium.
  Journal
FEMS Microbiol Lett 323:142-50 (2011)
DOI:10.1111/j.1574-6968.2011.02370.x
Reference
  Authors
Gregersen LH, Bryant DA, Frigaard NU
  Title
Mechanisms and evolution of oxidative sulfur metabolism in green sulfur bacteria.
  Journal
Front Microbiol 2:116 (2011)
DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2011.00116
Reference
  Authors
Beller HR, Chain PS, Letain TE, Chakicherla A, Larimer FW, Richardson PM, Coleman MA, Wood AP, Kelly DP.
  Title
The genome sequence of the obligately chemolithoautotrophic, facultatively anaerobic bacterium Thiobacillus denitrificans.
  Journal
J Bacteriol 188:1473-88 (2006)
DOI:10.1128/JB.188.4.1473-1488.2006
Reference
PMID:9695921
  Authors
Pott AS, Dahl C
  Title
Sirohaem sulfite reductase and other proteins encoded by genes at the dsr locus of Chromatium vinosum are involved in the oxidation of intracellular sulfur.
  Journal
Microbiology 144 ( Pt 7):1881-94 (1998)
DOI:10.1099/00221287-144-7-1881
Reference
  Authors
Frigaard NU, Dahl C
  Title
Sulfur metabolism in phototrophic sulfur bacteria.
  Journal
Adv Microb Physiol 54:103-200 (2009)
DOI:10.1016/S0065-2911(08)00002-7
Related
pathway
rn00260  Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism
rn00270  Cysteine and methionine metabolism
rn00680  Methane metabolism
rn00720  Carbon fixation pathways in prokaryotes
KO pathway
ko00920   
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