Cyclic GMP (cGMP) is the intracellular second messenger that mediates the action of nitric oxide (NO) and natriuretic peptides (NPs), regulating a broad array of physiologic processes. The elevated intracellular cGMP level exerts its physiological action through two forms of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG), cGMP-regulated phosphodiesterases (PDE2, PDE3) and cGMP-gated cation channels, among which PKGs might be the primary mediator. PKG1 isoform-specific activation of established substrates leads to reduction of cytosolic calcium concentration and/or decrease in the sensitivity of myofilaments to Ca2+ (Ca2+-desensitization), resulting in smooth muscle relaxation. In cardiac myocyte, PKG directly phosphorylates a member of the transient potential receptor canonical channel family, TRPC6, suppressing this nonselective ion channel's Ca2+ conductance, G-alpha-q agonist-induced NFAT activation, and myocyte hypertrophic responses. PKG also opens mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K+ (mitoKATP) channels and subsequent release of ROS triggers cardioprotection.