KEGG   DISEASE: Huntington disease
Entry
H00059                      Disease                                

Name
Huntington disease
Description
Huntington disease (HD) is an autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disorder that primarily affects medium spiny striatal neurons (MSN). The symptoms are choreiform, involuntary movements, personality changes and dementia. HD is caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the IT15 gene, which results in a long stretch of polyglutamine (polyQ) close to the amino-terminus of the HD protein huntingtin (Htt). Mutant Htt (mHtt) has effects both in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus. Full-length Htt is cleaved by proteases in the cytoplasm, leading to the formation of cytoplasmic and neuritic aggregates. mHtt also alters vesicular transport and recycling, causes cytosolic and mitochondrial Ca2+  overload, triggers endoplasmic reticulum stress through proteasomal dysfunction, and impairs autophagy function, increasing neuronal death susceptibility. N-terminal fragments containing the polyQ stretch translocate to the nucleus where they impair transcription and induce neuronal death.
Category
Neurodegenerative disease
Brite
Human diseases [BR:br08402]
 Nervous system diseases
  Neurodegenerative diseases
   H00059  Huntington disease
Human diseases in ICD-11 classification [BR:br08403]
 08 Diseases of the nervous system
  Movement disorders
   8A01  Choreiform disorders
    H00059  Huntington disease
Pathway
hsa05016  Huntington disease
Related
pathway
hsa05022  Pathways of neurodegeneration - multiple diseases
Network
nt06410  Calcium signaling
nt06413  Autophagy
nt06414  Apoptosis
nt06416  TNF signaling
nt06418  Oxidative phosphorylation
nt06419  Microtubule-based transport
nt06420  Ubiquitin-proteasome system
nt06440  Transcription
nt06461  Huntington disease
  Element
N00977  Mutation-caused aberrant Htt to retrograde axonal transport
N00979  Mutation-caused aberrant Htt to anterograde axonal transport
N00980  Mutation-caused aberrant Htt to REST-mediated transcriptional repression
N00981  Mutation-caused aberrant Htt to CREB-mediated transcription
N00982  Mutation-caused aberrant Htt to p53-mediated transcription
N00983  Mutation-caused aberrant Htt to extrinsic apoptotic pathway
N00985  Mutation-caused aberrant Htt to mGluR5-Ca2+ -apoptotic pathway
N00986  Mutation-caused aberrant Htt to VGCC-Ca2+ -apoptotic pathway
N00987  Mutation-caused aberrant Htt to transport of calcium
N00989  Mutation-caused aberrant Htt to electron transfer in Complex II
N00991  Mutation-caused aberrant Htt to electron transfer in Complex III
N00992  Mutation-caused aberrant Htt to TNF-JNK signaling pathway
N00993  Mutation-caused aberrant Htt to autophagy-vesicle nucleation
N01061  Mutation-caused aberrant Htt to 26S proteasome-mediated protein degradation
Gene
HTT; huntingtin (CAG repeat expansion) [HSA:3064] [KO:K04533]
Drug
Tetrabenazine [DR:D08575]
Deutetrabenazine [DR:D10701]
Comment
Disease class: polyglutamine disease
Affected region: caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, thalamus, hippocampus
Microscopic lesion: neuronal intranuclear inclusions
Other DBs
ICD-11: 8A01.10
ICD-10: G10
MeSH: D006816
OMIM: 143100
Reference
  Authors
Imarisio S, Carmichael J, Korolchuk V, Chen CW, Saiki S, Rose C, Krishna G, Davies JE, Ttofi E, Underwood BR, Rubinsztein DC
  Title
Huntington's disease: from pathology and genetics to potential therapies.
  Journal
Biochem J 412:191-209 (2008)
DOI:10.1042/BJ20071619
Reference
  Authors
Spires TL, Hannan AJ
  Title
Molecular mechanisms mediating pathological plasticity in Huntington's disease and Alzheimer's disease.
  Journal
J Neurochem 100:874-82 (2007)
DOI:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2006.04275.x
Reference
  Authors
Gusella JF, Macdonald ME
  Title
Huntington's disease: seeing the pathogenic process through a genetic lens.
  Journal
Trends Biochem Sci 31:533-40 (2006)
DOI:10.1016/j.tibs.2006.06.009
Reference
  Authors
Gardian G, Vecsei L.
  Title
Huntington's disease: pathomechanism and therapeutic perspectives.
  Journal
J Neural Transm 111:1485-94 (2004)
DOI:10.1007/s00702-004-0201-4
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