KEGG   PATHWAY: map05111
Entry
map05111                    Pathway                                

Name
Biofilm formation - Vibrio cholerae
Description
Surface colonization and subsequent biofilm formation and development provide numerous advantages to microorganisms. On the other hand, biofilm formation is an energetically costly process and therefore must be tightly regulated and plastic, enabling biofilm bacteria to be responsive to the various environmental cues. The quorum sensing (QS) pathway of Vibrio cholerae activates the expression of VpsR, VpsT and AphA (the main activators of biofilm formation) at low cell density and HapR (the main repressor) at high cell density. At low cell density, biofilm genes, including Vibrio polysaccharide (VPS) biosynthesis genes and the major extracellular matrix genes RbmA, RbmC, and Bap1, are expressed. The QS pathway also leads to induction of virulence factors such as toxin coregulated pilus (TCP) and cholera toxin (CTX), essential for colonization of the host and enterotoxicity, respectively. The VarS/VarA signaling system responds to an unknown environmental cue and represses biofilm production by process which involves the regulatory sRNAs CsrB, CsrC and CsrD and the RNA-binding protein CsrA, interfering with LuxO of the QS pathway. The second messenger cAMP acts as a repressor of biofilm formation. cAMP is generated by adenylate cyclase CyaA, and in complex with cAMP receptor protein (CRP), this nucleotide has been shown to upregulate HapR production through the positive regulation of the CAI-I synthase CqsA and the negative regulation of Fis. The second messenger c-di-GMP is a key signalling molecule controlling motility and biofilm matrix production. High cellular levels of c-di-GMP promote enhanced transcription of genes involved in biofilm formation, possibly by promoting VpsT-mediated transcriptional activation of vps genes.
Class
Cellular Processes; Cellular community - prokaryotes
Pathway map
map05111  Biofilm formation - Vibrio cholerae
map05111

Module
M00852  Vibrio cholerae pathogenicity signature, toxin coregulated pilus [PATH:map05111]
Reference
  Authors
Teschler JK, Zamorano-Sanchez D, Utada AS, Warner CJ, Wong GC, Linington RG, Yildiz FH
  Title
Living in the matrix: assembly and control of Vibrio cholerae biofilms.
  Journal
Nat Rev Microbiol 13:255-68 (2015)
DOI:10.1038/nrmicro3433
Reference
  Authors
Dang H, Lovell CR
  Title
Microbial Surface Colonization and Biofilm Development in Marine Environments.
  Journal
Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 80:91-138 (2016)
DOI:10.1128/MMBR.00037-15
Reference
  Authors
Hengge R
  Title
Principles of c-di-GMP signalling in bacteria.
  Journal
Nat Rev Microbiol 7:263-73 (2009)
DOI:10.1038/nrmicro2109
Reference
  Authors
Liang ZX
  Title
The expanding roles of c-di-GMP in the biosynthesis of exopolysaccharides and secondary metabolites.
  Journal
Nat Prod Rep 32:663-83 (2015)
DOI:10.1039/c4np00086b
Reference
PMID:9371445
  Authors
Sandkvist M, Michel LO, Hough LP, Morales VM, Bagdasarian M, Koomey M, DiRita VJ, Bagdasarian M
  Title
General secretion pathway (eps) genes required for toxin secretion and outer membrane biogenesis in Vibrio cholerae.
  Journal
J Bacteriol 179:6994-7003 (1997)
DOI:10.1128/JB.179.22.6994-7003.1997
Reference
  Authors
Lenz DH, Miller MB, Zhu J, Kulkarni RV, Bassler BL
  Title
CsrA and three redundant small RNAs regulate quorum sensing in Vibrio cholerae.
  Journal
Mol Microbiol 58:1186-202 (2005)
DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2958.2005.04902.x
Reference
  Authors
Houot L, Watnick PI
  Title
A novel role for enzyme I of the Vibrio cholerae phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase system in regulation of growth in a biofilm.
  Journal
J Bacteriol 190:311-20 (2008)
DOI:10.1128/JB.01410-07
Reference
  Authors
Liang W, Silva AJ, Benitez JA
  Title
The cyclic AMP receptor protein modulates colonial morphology in Vibrio cholerae.
  Journal
Appl Environ Microbiol 73:7482-7 (2007)
DOI:10.1128/AEM.01564-07
Reference
  Authors
Lenz DH, Bassler BL
  Title
The small nucleoid protein Fis is involved in Vibrio cholerae quorum sensing.
  Journal
Mol Microbiol 63:859-71 (2007)
DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2958.2006.05545.x
Related
pathway
map02024  Quorum sensing
map02040  Flagellar assembly
map03070  Bacterial secretion system
map05110  Vibrio cholerae infection
KO pathway
ko05111   
LinkDB

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