KEGG   ENZYME: 3.5.4.38
Entry
EC 3.5.4.38                 Enzyme                                 
Name
single-stranded DNA cytosine deaminase;
AID;
activation-induced deaminase;
AICDA (gene name);
activation-induced cytidine deaminase
Class
Hydrolases;
Acting on carbon-nitrogen bonds, other than peptide bonds;
In cyclic amidines
Sysname
single-stranded DNA cytosine aminohydrolase
Reaction(IUBMB)
cytosine in single-stranded DNA + H2O = uracil in single-stranded DNA + NH3
Substrate
cytosine in single-stranded DNA;
H2O [CPD:C00001]
Product
uracil in single-stranded DNA;
NH3 [CPD:C00014]
Comment
The enzyme exclusively catalyses deamination of cytosine in single-stranded DNA. It preferentially deaminates five-nucleotide bubbles. The optimal target consists of a single-stranded NWRCN motif (W = A or T, R = A or G) [2]. The enzyme initiates antibody diversification processes by deaminating immunoglobulin sequences.
History
EC 3.5.4.38 created 2013
Orthology
K10989  activation-induced cytidine deaminase
Genes
HSA57379(AICDA)
PTR473404(AICDA)
PPS100973347(AICDA)
GGO101135489(AICDA)
PON100439396(AICDA)
NLE100592218(AICDA)
MCC716378(AICDA)
MCF102122751(AICDA)
MTHB126931394
CSAB103218532(AICDA)
CATY105587957(AICDA)
PANU101022355(AICDA)
TGE112634673(AICDA)
RRO104672844(AICDA)
RBB108543657(AICDA)
TFN117090538(AICDA)
PTEH111526623(AICDA)
CJC100387865(AICDA)
SBQ101034094(AICDA)
CSYR103251717(AICDA)
MMUR105878286
LCAT123640610(AICDA)
OGA100945807(AICDA)
MMU11628(Aicda)
MCAL110295779(Aicda)
MPAH110317038(Aicda)
RNO399679(Aicda)
MCOC116098317(Aicda)
MUN110556288(Aicda)
CGE100689250(Aicda)
MAUA101841949(Aicda)
PLEU114683510(Aicda)
MORG121441889(Aicda)
MFOT126514847
NGI103727567(Aicda)
HGL101723465(Aicda)
CPOC100729642 100731564 100732386
CCAN109680708(Aicda)
DORD105991013(Aicda)
DSP122127021(Aicda)
NCAR124982773
OCU100008969
OPI101535645(AICDA)
TUP102476438(AICDA)
GVR103582258 103597927(AICDA)
CFA442983(AICDA)
CLUD112675321(AICDA)
VVP112917509(AICDA)
VLG121479859(AICDA)
AML100474338(AICDA)
UMR103669168(AICDA)
UAH113257425(AICDA)
UAR123781604(AICDA)
ELK111142054
LLV125107996
MPUF101679159(AICDA)
ORO101375110(AICDA)
EJU114221688(AICDA)
ZCA113921816(AICDA)
MLX118025698(AICDA)
NSU110580728(AICDA)
LWW102740926(AICDA)
FCA101101143(AICDA)
PYU121022000(AICDA)
PBG122472688(AICDA)
LRUF124502426
PTG102950698(AICDA)
PPAD109276061(AICDA)
AJU106965426(AICDA)
HHV120222699(AICDA)
BTA539888(AICDA)
BOM102271255(AICDA)
BIU109558588(AICDA)
BBUB102396934(AICDA)
BBIS104995476(AICDA)
CHX102181572(AICDA)
OAS101103056(AICDA)
ODA120857972(AICDA)
CCAD122423621(AICDA)
SSC100526050(AICDA)
CFR102517000(AICDA)
CBAI105062175(AICDA)
CDK105098237(AICDA)
VPC102527290(AICDA)
BACU103010462(AICDA)
LVE103069988(AICDA)
OOR101285289(AICDA)
DLE111176735(AICDA)
PCAD102985948(AICDA)
PSIU116760951(AICDA)
ECB100061137(AICDA)
EPZ103556648(AICDA)
EAI106837434(AICDA)
MYB102246875(AICDA)
MYD102754251(AICDA)
MMYO118650733(AICDA)
MLF102430894(AICDA)
MNA107543987(AICDA)
PKL118729810(AICDA)
HAI109372744(AICDA) 109392228
DRO112321970(AICDA)
SHON119002541(AICDA)
AJM119065676(AICDA)
PDIC114513696(AICDA)
PHAS123819343(AICDA)
MMF118624457(AICDA)
RFQ117028892(AICDA)
PALE102880164(AICDA)
PVP105295918(AICDA)
RAY107501658(AICDA)
MJV108396885(AICDA)
TOD119247037(AICDA)
SARA101553692(AICDA)
LAV100656685(AICDA)
TMU101348216
ETF101651339(AICDA)
DNM101417910 101428702(AICDA)
MDO100013907(AICDA)
GAS123249252(AICDA)
SHR100931157(AICDA)
PCW110213822(AICDA)
OAA100085951(AICDA)
GGA418257(AICDA)
PCOC116240951(AICDA)
MGP100542460(AICDA)
CJO107318165(AICDA)
NMEL110392453(AICDA)
APLA101792498(AICDA)
ACYG106048067(AICDA)
AFUL116490129(AICDA)
TGU105758674(AICDA)
LSR110472352(AICDA)
SCAN103812487(AICDA)
PMOA120497751(AICDA)
OTC121340964(AICDA)
PRUF121349848(AICDA)
GFR102039832(AICDA)
FAB101816423(AICDA)
PHI102100565(AICDA)
PMAJ107212474(AICDA)
CCAE111925850(AICDA)
CCW104690263
CBRC103616671(AICDA)
ETL114069347(AICDA)
ZAB102067674
ACHL103810517(AICDA)
FPG101914801(AICDA)
FCH102056463(AICDA)
CLV102087778(AICDA)
EGZ104122769(AICDA)
NNI104014575(AICDA)
PLET104618143(AICDA)
PCRI104031013(AICDA)
PCAO104048838(AICDA)
ACUN113491213(AICDA)
TALA104366491(AICDA)
PADL103915113(AICDA)
AFOR103908541(AICDA)
ACHC115352641(AICDA)
HALD104323321
HLE104836676(AICDA)
AGEN126047956
GCL127016006
CCRI104162401(AICDA)
CSTI104551955(AICDA)
EHS104513937(AICDA)
CMAC104486310(AICDA)
MUI104538793(AICDA)
FGA104081375(AICDA)
GSTE104264504(AICDA)
LDI104345794(AICDA)
OHA104332448(AICDA)
NNT104402025(AICDA)
DPUB104306897(AICDA)
PGUU104466317(AICDA)
ACAR104531752(AICDA)
CPEA104394553(AICDA)
AVIT104268823(AICDA)
CVF104294500(AICDA)
CUCA104060634(AICDA)
TEO104370795(AICDA)
BRHI104490457(AICDA)
AAM106495707(AICDA)
AROW112973977(AICDA)
NPD112952040(AICDA)
TGT104580214(AICDA)
DNE112992434(AICDA)
SCAM104152044(AICDA)
ASN102376898(AICDA)
AMJ102558786(AICDA)
CPOO109316235(AICDA)
GGN109296590(AICDA)
PSS102452729(AICDA)
CMY102933542(AICDA)
CPIC101942640(AICDA)
TST117884862(AICDA)
CABI116823840(AICDA)
MRV120381360(AICDA)
ACS100558459(aicda)
PVT110090848(AICDA)
SUND121922863
PBI103050866(AICDA)
PMUR107288413(AICDA)
CTIG120318700(AICDA)
PGUT117656286(AICDA)
VKO123017771(AICDA)
PMUA114588074(AICDA)
ZVI118097951(AICDA)
GJA107116093(AICDA)
XLA108697151(aicda.S) 734224(aicda.L)
XTR100497606(aicda)
NPR108799486(AICDA)
RTEM120910359(AICDA) 120913458
BBUF120977651 121004594
BGAR122942284(AICDA)
DRE493784(aicda)
SRX107724977 107744312
SANH107672983 107692585
SGH107549448 107598400
CCAR109113171(aicda)
CAUA113059628 113116839
PPRM120484243(aicda)
MAMB125244252(aicda)
IPU100304619(aicda)
PHYP113542425(aicda)
SMEO124384570(aicda)
TFD113643574(aicda)
AMEX103042217(aicda)
EEE113570641(aicda)
TRU777999(aicda)
TNGGSTEN00015446G001
LCO104934638(aicda)
NCC104960416(aicda)
CGOB115021432(aicda)
ELY117266528(aicda)
EFO125893531(aicda)
PLEP121946375(aicda)
SLUC116049673(aicda)
ECRA117946294(aicda)
ESP116691310(aicda)
PFLV114557330(aicda)
GAT120810728(aicda)
PPUG119197276(aicda)
MSAM119897479(aicda)
CUD121513645(aicda)
ALAT119006385(aicda)
MZE101463826(aicda)
ONL100694963(aicda)
OAU116323857(aicda)
OLA101168236(aicda)
OML112143736(aicda)
XMA102220777(aicda)
XCO114142228(aicda)
XHE116716637(aicda)
PRET103478041(aicda)
PFOR103136694 103136697
PLAI106958069(aicda)
PMEI106916557(aicda)
GAF122831115(aicda)
CVG107082210
CTUL119783184(aicda)
GMU124865717(aicda)
NFU107379531
KMR108235484(aicda)
ALIM106520455(aicda)
NWH119409964(aicda)
AOCE111586370(aicda)
MCEP125016550(aicda)
CSEM103387859(aicda)
POV109633057(aicda)
SSEN122774628(aicda)
HHIP117776956(aicda)
HSP118113247(aicda)
LCF108887318
SDU111230178(aicda)
SLAL111669845(aicda)
XGL120784028(aicda)
HCQ109515270(aicda)
BPEC110163179(aicda)
MALB109970232(aicda)
BSPL114842970(aicda)
SASA106575151 106576980
STRU115165100 115176836
OTW112237113
OMY118944062
OGO123998044
SALP111964712 112081092
SNH120047719 120047766
CCLU121542386(aicda)
ELS105019036
SFM108924694
PKI111845806(aicda)
AANG118215063(aicda)
LOC102694057
PSPA121302237 121325394(aicda)
ARUT117409992 117410177 117424122 117425258 117966747
PSEX120534980(aicda)
LCM102350911(AICDA)
CSEC117282297
GAE121386316
CRG105342618
 » show all
Reference
1  [PMID:12799424]
  Authors
Sohail A, Klapacz J, Samaranayake M, Ullah A, Bhagwat AS
  Title
Human activation-induced cytidine deaminase causes transcription-dependent, strand-biased C to U deaminations.
  Journal
Nucleic Acids Res 31:2990-4 (2003)
DOI:10.1093/nar/gkg464
Reference
2  [PMID:17060445]
  Authors
Larijani M, Petrov AP, Kolenchenko O, Berru M, Krylov SN, Martin A
  Title
AID associates with single-stranded DNA with high affinity and a long complex half-life in a sequence-independent manner.
  Journal
Mol Cell Biol 27:20-30 (2007)
DOI:10.1128/MCB.00824-06
Reference
3  [PMID:17889624]
  Authors
Brar SS, Sacho EJ, Tessmer I, Croteau DL, Erie DA, Diaz M
  Title
Activation-induced deaminase, AID, is catalytically active as a monomer on single-stranded DNA.
  Journal
DNA Repair (Amst) 7:77-87 (2008)
DOI:10.1016/j.dnarep.2007.08.002
Reference
4  [PMID:17893327]
  Authors
Larijani M, Martin A
  Title
Single-stranded DNA structure and positional context of the target cytidine determine the enzymatic efficiency of AID.
  Journal
Mol Cell Biol 27:8038-48 (2007)
DOI:10.1128/MCB.01046-07
Reference
5  [PMID:19766322]
  Authors
Verma S, Goldammer T, Aitken R
  Title
Cloning and expression of activation induced cytidine deaminase from Bos taurus.
  Journal
Vet Immunol Immunopathol 134:151-9 (2010)
DOI:10.1016/j.vetimm.2009.08.016
  Sequence
[bta:539888]
Other DBs
ExplorEnz - The Enzyme Database: 3.5.4.38
IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature: 3.5.4.38
ExPASy - ENZYME nomenclature database: 3.5.4.38
BRENDA, the Enzyme Database: 3.5.4.38
LinkDB

DBGET integrated database retrieval system