KEGG   ENZYME: 6.3.2.11
Entry
EC 6.3.2.11                 Enzyme                                 
Name
carnosine synthase;
carnosine synthetase;
carnosine-anserine synthetase;
homocarnosine-carnosine synthetase;
carnosine-homocarnosine synthetase;
L-histidine:beta-alanine ligase (AMP-forming) (incorrect)
Class
Ligases;
Forming carbon-nitrogen bonds;
Acid-D-amino-acid ligases (peptide synthases)
Sysname
L-histidine:beta-alanine ligase (ADP-forming)
Reaction(IUBMB)
ATP + L-histidine + beta-alanine = ADP + phosphate + carnosine [RN:R01164]
Reaction(KEGG)
R01164;
(other) R00910 R00912 R01991 R03286
Substrate
ATP [CPD:C00002];
L-histidine [CPD:C00135];
beta-alanine [CPD:C00099]
Product
ADP [CPD:C00008];
phosphate [CPD:C00009];
carnosine [CPD:C00386]
Comment
This enzyme was thought to form AMP [1,2], but studies with highly purified enzyme proved that it forms ADP [4]. Carnosine is a dipeptide that is present at high concentrations in skeletal muscle and the olfactory bulb of vertebrates [3]. It is also found in the skeletal muscle of some invertebrates. The enzyme can also catalyse the formation of homocarnosine from 4-aminobutanoate and L-histidine, with much lower activity [4].
History
EC 6.3.2.11 created 1965, modified 2010
Pathway
ec00330  Arginine and proline metabolism
ec00340  Histidine metabolism
ec00410  beta-Alanine metabolism
ec01100  Metabolic pathways
Orthology
K14755  carnosine synthase
Genes
HSA57571(CARNS1)
PTR451368(CARNS1)
PPS100992842(CARNS1)
GGO101133589(CARNS1)
PON100433050(CARNS1)
NLE100586652(CARNS1)
MCC712485(CARNS1)
MCF102140146(CARNS1)
MTHB126935432
CSAB103217912(CARNS1)
CATY105577355(CARNS1)
PANU101012781(CARNS1)
TGE112606990(CARNS1)
RRO104664741(CARNS1)
RBB108518609(CARNS1)
TFN117080245(CARNS1)
PTEH111522251(CARNS1)
CJC100396814(CARNS1)
SBQ101048183(CARNS1)
MMUR105867471(CARNS1)
LCAT123642850(CARNS1)
OGA100941290(CARNS1)
MMU107239(Carns1)
MCAL110286079(Carns1)
MPAH110336527(Carns1)
RNO309150(Carns1)
MCOC116103323(Carns1)
MUN110560365(Carns1)
CGE100765077(Carns1)
MAUA101828407(Carns1)
PLEU114685990(Carns1)
MORG121453760(Carns1)
MFOT126498508
AAMP119805188(Carns1)
NGI103725587(Carns1)
HGL101703269(Carns1)
CPOC100733118(Carns1)
CCAN109688626(Carns1)
DORD105989174(Carns1)
DSP122105364(Carns1)
NCAR124958804
OPI101525872(CARNS1)
TUP102476516(CARNS1)
CFA483695(CARNS1)
CLUD112659426(CARNS1)
VVP112924184(CARNS1)
VLG121472179(CARNS1)
AML100470611(CARNS1)
UMR103679612(CARNS1)
UAH113244030(CARNS1)
UAR123778450(CARNS1)
ELK111149703
LLV125079633
MPUF101671143(CARNS1)
ORO101382286(CARNS1)
EJU114220188(CARNS1)
ZCA113914532(CARNS1)
MLX118016128(CARNS1)
NSU110576037(CARNS1)
FCA101080661(CARNS1)
PYU121023681(CARNS1)
PBG122484050(CARNS1)
LRUF124506130
PTG102953183(CARNS1)
PPAD109246848(CARNS1)
AJU106971104(CARNS1)
HHV120233868(CARNS1)
BTA783525(CARNS1)
BOM102288119(CARNS1)
BIU109554139(CARNS1)
BBUB102414079(CARNS1)
CHX102182385(CARNS1)
OAS101109312(CARNS1)
ODA120874774(CARNS1)
CCAD122430820(CARNS1)
SSC100512885(CARNS1)
CFR102520872(CARNS1)
CBAI105070428(CARNS1)
CDK105104426(CARNS1)
VPC102536997(CARNS1)
BACU103008596(CARNS1)
LVE103080369(CARNS1)
OOR101285110(CARNS1)
DLE111183670(CARNS1)
PCAD102981468
PSIU116757789(RPS6KB2)
ECB100059309(CARNS1)
EPZ103560159(CARNS1)
EAI106833657(CARNS1)
MYB102244811(CARNS1)
MYD102764108(CARNS1)
MMYO118665217(CARNS1)
MLF102436930(CARNS1)
MNA107537447(CARNS1)
PKL118706963(CARNS1)
HAI109384218(CARNS1)
DRO112317161(CARNS1)
SHON118991816(CARNS1)
AJM119041869(CARNS1)
PDIC114500896(CARNS1)
PHAS123829616(CARNS1)
MMF118628350(CARNS1)
RFQ117029820(CARNS1)
PALE102891454(CARNS1)
PGIG120584752(CARNS1)
PVP105306549(CARNS1)
RAY107503705(CARNS1)
MJV108393146(CARNS1)
TOD119249911(CARNS1)
SARA101549931(CARNS1)
TMU101343802
DNM101445662(CARNS1)
MDO100028997(CARNS1)
GAS123252078(CARNS1)
SHR100934818(CARNS1)
PCW110195424(CARNS1)
OAA100681134(CARNS1)
GGA100359387(CARNS1)
PCOC116243023(CARNS1)
MGP100548525(CARNS1)
CJO107314238(CARNS1)
NMEL110390570
ACYG106048295(CARNS1)
AFUL116490065(CARNS1)
TGU115495355(CARNS1)
LSR110485040(CARNS1)
PMOA120499578(CARNS1)
OTC121339383 121339658
PRUF121354246 121355168(CARNS1)
FAB101810237(CARNS1)
PHI102100376(CARNS1)
PMAJ107205283(CARNS1)
CCW120410069(CARNS1)
ETL114063334(CARNS1)
FPG101914136(RPS6KB2) 106112844(CARNS1)
FCH102053346(CARNS1)
CLV102090970(CARNS1)
TALA116962730(CARNS1)
ACHC115337544(CARNS1)
AROW112963283(CARNS1)
NPD112957577(CARNS1)
DNE112988613(CARNS1)
ASN102369760(CARNS1)
AMJ102565182(CARNS1)
CPOO109324621(CARNS1)
PSS102451775(CARNS1)
CMY102932637(CARNS1)
CPIC101949086(CARNS1)
TST117876023(CARNS1)
CABI116833424(CARNS1)
MRV120393419(CARNS1)
ACS100557340(carns1)
PVT110085648(CARNS1)
SUND121919270(CARNS1)
PBI103057026(CARNS1)
PMUR107293631(CARNS1)
CTIG120306944(CARNS1)
TSR106538898(CARNS1)
PGUT117675337(CARNS1)
VKO123027364(CARNS1)
PMUA114602074(CARNS1)
ZVI118090264(CARNS1)
GJA107121294(CARNS1)
STOW125425978(CARNS1)
XLA108696326(carns1.L)
XTR100487967(carns1)
NPR108796244
RTEM120909145(CARNS1)
BBUF121003071(CARNS1)
BGAR122940634(CARNS1)
OMY110488634 110504839
OGO123993270 124010849
ONE115129348 115130544
SNH120047075 120062128
AANG118231339
LOC102683811 102697335(carns1)
PSPA121307257 121307276
ARUT117409973 117410067 117410068 117966719 117966722 117968602 117970752
CRG105317679 105324334 105346080
MYI110448302
PMAX117317717
MMER123525736 123534519 123541963 123542593
OBI106877889 106879380
OSN115220804 115220869 115220883 115220906
CMECYME_CMF080C
 » show all
Reference
1  [PMID:14404206]
  Authors
KALYANKAR GD, MEISTER A.
  Title
Enzymatic synthesis of carnosine and related beta-alanyl and gamma-aminobutyryl peptides.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 234:3210-8 (1959)
Reference
2  [PMID:16748858]
  Authors
Stenesh JJ, Winnick T.
  Title
Carnosine-anserine synthetase of muscle. 4. Partial purification of the enzyme and further studies of beta-alanyl peptide synthesis.
  Journal
Biochem J 77:575-81 (1960)
DOI:10.1042/bj0770575
Reference
3  [PMID:4988625]
  Authors
Crush KG
  Title
Carnosine and related substances in animal tissues.
  Journal
Comp Biochem Physiol 34:3-30 (1970)
DOI:10.1016/0010-406x(70)90049-6
Reference
4  [PMID:20097752]
  Authors
Drozak J, Veiga-da-Cunha M, Vertommen D, Stroobant V, Van Schaftingen E
  Title
Molecular identification of carnosine synthase as ATP-grasp domain-containing protein 1 (ATPGD1).
  Journal
J Biol Chem 285:9346-56 (2010)
DOI:10.1074/jbc.M109.095505
  Sequence
[gga:100359387] [hsa:57571] [mmu:107239]
Other DBs
ExplorEnz - The Enzyme Database: 6.3.2.11
IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature: 6.3.2.11
ExPASy - ENZYME nomenclature database: 6.3.2.11
BRENDA, the Enzyme Database: 6.3.2.11
CAS: 9023-61-4
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