KEGG   DISEASE: Hashimoto thyroiditis
Entry
H00081                      Disease                                
Name
Hashimoto thyroiditis
Description
Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) is a common form of chronic autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD), and is characterized by an inflammatory infiltrate of immunocytes that replace the parenchyma and induce thyroid enlargement, which eventually leads to gland fibrosis. Progressive thyrocyte depletion results in impaired thyroid hormone production and clinical hypothyroidism, a condition that involves a marked reduction of metabolic activity in various cells and tissues. AITDs are regarded as polygenic disorders resulting from the combination of a genetic predisposition in conjunction with an environmental trigger. Two main approaches have been employed to locate susceptibility loci for AITD, namely case control candidate gene studies and genome-wide linkage screens. Case control candidate gene studies have been employed to investigate numerous genes for association with AITD, but to date, only the human leucocyte region (HLA) on chromosome 6p21 and the cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated 4 (CTLA-4) gene on chromosome 2q33 have been consistently shown to be associated with disease.
Category
Immune system disease
Brite
Human diseases [BR:br08402]
 Immune system diseases
  Allergies and autoimmune diseases
   H00081  Hashimoto thyroiditis
Human diseases in ICD-11 classification [BR:br08403]
 05 Endocrine, nutritional or metabolic diseases
  Endocrine diseases
   Disorders of the thyroid gland or thyroid hormones system
    5A03  Thyroiditis
     H00081  Hashimoto thyroiditis
Pathway
hsa05320  Autoimmune thyroid disease
Related
pathway
hsa04612  Antigen processing and presentation
Gene
HLA-DRB1 (polymorphism) [HSA:3123] [KO:K06752]
HLA-DQA1 (polymorphism) [HSA:3117] [KO:K06752]
HLA-DQB1 (polymorphism) [HSA:3119] [KO:K06752]
CTLA-4 (polymorphism) [HSA:1493] [KO:K06538]
Env factor
Iodine [CPD:C01382]
Amiodarone [CPD:C06823]
IFN-alpha
Infectious organisms
IL-2 [HSA:3558]
Drug
Levothyroxine sodium [DR:D01010]
Thyroid [DR:D06482] (Hashimoto's)
Comment
Autoantigens:
Thyroidperoxidase (TPO) [HSA:7173]
Thyroglobulin (Tg) [HSA:7038]
Na+/ I- symporter (NIS) [HSA:6528]
Other DBs
ICD-11: 5A03.20
ICD-10: E06.3
MeSH: D050031
Reference
  Authors
Stassi G, De Maria R.
  Title
Autoimmune thyroid disease: new models of cell death in autoimmunity.
  Journal
Nat Rev Immunol 2:195-204 (2002)
DOI:10.1038/nri750
Reference
PMID:15049952 (gene, env_factor)
  Authors
Fountoulakis S, Tsatsoulis A.
  Title
On the pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid disease: a unifying hypothesis.
  Journal
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 60:397-409 (2004)
DOI:10.1046/j.1365-2265.2004.01978.x
Reference
  Authors
Simmonds MJ, Gough SC.
  Title
Unravelling the genetic complexity of autoimmune thyroid disease: HLA, CTLA-4 and beyond.
  Journal
Clin Exp Immunol 136:1-10 (2004)
DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2249.2004.02424.x
Reference
PMID:15762980 (gene, env_factor, marker)
  Authors
Chistiakov DA.
  Title
Immunogenetics of Hashimoto's thyroiditis.
  Journal
J Autoimmune Dis 2:1 (2005)
DOI:10.1186/1740-2557-2-1
Reference
PMID:12734493 (gene, env_factor, marker, autoantigen)
  Authors
Ai J, Leonhardt JM, Heymann WR.
  Title
Autoimmune thyroid diseases: etiology, pathogenesis, and dermatologic manifestations.
  Journal
J Am Acad Dermatol 48:641-59; quiz 660-2 (2003)
DOI:10.1067/mjd.2003.257
Reference
PMID:15132715 (env_factor)
  Authors
Prummel MF, Strieder T, Wiersinga WM.
  Title
The environment and autoimmune thyroid diseases.
  Journal
Eur J Endocrinol 150:605-18 (2004)
DOI:10.1530/eje.0.1500605
Reference
(drug)
  Authors
Papadakis MA and McPhee SJ |(ed)
  Title
Current Medical Diagnosis & Treatment 2007, Forty-Sixth Edition
  Journal
McGraw Hill Education
Reference
PMID:16127951 (drug)
  Authors
Reid JR, Wheeler SF.
  Title
Hyperthyroidism: diagnosis and treatment.
  Journal
Am Fam Physician 72:623-30 (2005)
Reference
PMID:11396701 (autoantigen)
  Authors
Ruwhof C, Drexhage HA.
  Title
Iodine and thyroid autoimmune disease in animal models.
  Journal
Thyroid 11:427-36 (2001)
DOI:10.1089/105072501300176381
Reference
PMID:15135604 (autoantigen)
  Authors
Scofield RH.
  Title
Autoantibodies as predictors of disease.
  Journal
Lancet 363:1544-6 (2004)
DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(04)16154-0
LinkDB

» Japanese version

DBGET integrated database retrieval system