KEGG   DISEASE: Fulminant hepatic failure
Entry
H01712                      Disease                                
Name
Fulminant hepatic failure;
Fulminant hepatitis
  Subgroup
Viral hepatitis [DS:H02162]
Description
Fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) is a life-threatening condition characterized by the rapid deterioration of liver functions and hepatic encephalopathy. FHF is with the basic definition of the onset of hepatic encephalopathy within 8 weeks of the appearance of the first symptoms like jaundice, fever, nausea, and vomiting. The prothrombin time is prolonged by 4-6 seconds or more. While the etiologies of FHF are multiple and varied, viral hepatitis is the most frequent cause. Around 40-60% of patients with FHF are thought to be due to some viral infection. The prognosis is dependent on several factors, including the underlying cause of liver failure. For instance, it is well known that the spontaneous recovery rates from FHF from such etiologies as hepatitis A and acetaminophen toxicity are high, whereas those same rates for other types of viral hepatitis and idiosyncratic drug reactions are quite low. Identification of the cause of FHF is important because some causes have specific treatment interventions or antidotes. Specific therapies include N-acetylcysteine for acetaminophen overdose, and acyclovir for herpesvirus infection. Different therapeutic options such as complete exchange blood transfusion, corticosteroids, and plasma pheresis, have been tried. However, the overall prognosis for patients with FHF is quite poor, with survival rates usually reported between 10% and 30% without liver transplantation.
Category
Liver disease
Brite
Human diseases [BR:br08402]
 Digestive system diseases
  Liver diseases
   H01712  Fulminant hepatic failure
Human diseases in ICD-11 classification [BR:br08403]
 13 Diseases of the digestive system
  Diseases of liver
   DB91  Acute or subacute hepatic failure
    H01712  Fulminant hepatic failure
Other DBs
ICD-11: DB91.1
ICD-10: K72
MeSH: D017114
Reference
  Authors
Younis BB, Arshad R, Khurhsid S, Masood J, Nazir F, Tahira M
  Title
Fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) due to acute hepatitis C.
  Journal
Pak J Med Sci 31:1009-11 (2015)
DOI:10.12669/pjms.314.7618
Reference
  Authors
Farmer DG, Anselmo DM, Ghobrial RM, Yersiz H, McDiarmid SV, Cao C, Weaver M, Figueroa J, Khan K, Vargas J, Saab S, Han S, Durazo F, Goldstein L, Holt C, Busuttil RW
  Title
Liver transplantation for fulminant hepatic failure: experience with more than 200 patients over a 17-year period.
  Journal
Ann Surg 237:666-75; discussion 675-6 (2003)
DOI:10.1097/01.SLA.0000064365.54197.9E
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