KEGG   PATHWAY: map00333
Entry
map00333                    Pathway                                

Name
Prodigiosin biosynthesis
Description
Prodiginines are red-pigmented natural antibiotics that are produced as secondary metabolites and have received renewed attention because of potential clinical interests. In Serratia sp. or actinomycetes such as Streptomyces coelicolor, the tripyrrole molecules of prodigiosin and undecylprodigiosin are formed by the condensation of 4-methoxy-2,2'-bipyrrole-5-carbaldehyde and either 2-methyl-3-n-amyl-pyrrole [MD:M00837] or 2-undecylpyrrole [MD:M00838]. The Serratia pig gene cluster and the Streptomyces red gene cluster responsible for these biosynthesis pathways have been identified.
Class
Metabolism; Biosynthesis of other secondary metabolites
Pathway map
map00333  Prodigiosin biosynthesis
map00333

Module
M00837  Prodigiosin biosynthesis, L-proline => prodigiosin [PATH:map00333]
M00838  Undecylprodigiosin biosynthesis, L-proline => undecylprodigiosin [PATH:map00333]
Reference
  Authors
Williamson NR, Simonsen HT, Ahmed RA, Goldet G, Slater H, Woodley L, Leeper FJ, Salmond GP
  Title
Biosynthesis of the red antibiotic, prodigiosin, in Serratia: identification of a novel 2-methyl-3-n-amyl-pyrrole (MAP) assembly pathway, definition of the terminal condensing enzyme, and implications for undecylprodigiosin biosynthesis in Streptomyces.
  Journal
Mol Microbiol 56:971-89 (2005)
DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2958.2005.04602.x
Reference
  Authors
Cerdeno AM, Bibb MJ, Challis GL
  Title
Analysis of the prodiginine biosynthesis gene cluster of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2): new mechanisms for chain initiation and termination in modular multienzymes.
  Journal
Chem Biol 8:817-29 (2001)
DOI:10.1016/S1074-5521(01)00054-0
Reference
  Authors
Harris AK, Williamson NR, Slater H, Cox A, Abbasi S, Foulds I, Simonsen HT, Leeper FJ, Salmond GP
  Title
The Serratia gene cluster encoding biosynthesis of the red antibiotic, prodigiosin, shows species- and strain-dependent genome context variation.
  Journal
Microbiology 150:3547-60 (2004)
DOI:10.1099/mic.0.27222-0
Reference
  Authors
Williamson NR, Fineran PC, Leeper FJ, Salmond GP
  Title
The biosynthesis and regulation of bacterial prodiginines.
  Journal
Nat Rev Microbiol 4:887-99 (2006)
DOI:10.1038/nrmicro1531
Related
pathway
map00330  Arginine and proline metabolism
map00620  Pyruvate metabolism
KO pathway
ko00333   
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