Prodiginines are red-pigmented natural antibiotics that are produced as secondary metabolites and have received renewed attention because of potential clinical interests. In Serratia sp. or actinomycetes such as Streptomyces coelicolor, the tripyrrole molecules of prodigiosin and undecylprodigiosin are formed by the condensation of 4-methoxy-2,2'-bipyrrole-5-carbaldehyde and either 2-methyl-3-n-amyl-pyrrole [MD:
] or 2-undecylpyrrole [MD:
]. The Serratia pig gene cluster and the Streptomyces red gene cluster responsible for these biosynthesis pathways have been identified.
Metabolism; Biosynthesis of other secondary metabolites
Prodigiosin biosynthesis, L-proline => prodigiosin [PATH:
Undecylprodigiosin biosynthesis, L-proline => undecylprodigiosin [PATH:
Williamson NR, Simonsen HT, Ahmed RA, Goldet G, Slater H, Woodley L, Leeper FJ, Salmond GP
Biosynthesis of the red antibiotic, prodigiosin, in Serratia: identification of a novel 2-methyl-3-n-amyl-pyrrole (MAP) assembly pathway, definition of the terminal condensing enzyme, and implications for undecylprodigiosin biosynthesis in Streptomyces.
Mol Microbiol 56:971-89 (2005)
Cerdeno AM, Bibb MJ, Challis GL
Analysis of the prodiginine biosynthesis gene cluster of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2): new mechanisms for chain initiation and termination in modular multienzymes.
Chem Biol 8:817-29 (2001)
Harris AK, Williamson NR, Slater H, Cox A, Abbasi S, Foulds I, Simonsen HT, Leeper FJ, Salmond GP
The Serratia gene cluster encoding biosynthesis of the red antibiotic, prodigiosin, shows species- and strain-dependent genome context variation.
Microbiology 150:3547-60 (2004)
Williamson NR, Fineran PC, Leeper FJ, Salmond GP
The biosynthesis and regulation of bacterial prodiginines.
Nat Rev Microbiol 4:887-99 (2006)
Arginine and proline metabolism
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