KEGG   ENZYME: 1.1.1.219
Entry
EC 1.1.1.219                Enzyme                                 

Name
dihydroflavonol 4-reductase;
dihydrokaempferol 4-reductase;
dihydromyricetin reductase;
NADPH-dihydromyricetin reductase;
dihydroquercetin reductase;
DFR (gene name);
cis-3,4-leucopelargonidin:NADP+ 4-oxidoreductase;
dihydroflavanol 4-reductase (incorrect)
Class
Oxidoreductases;
Acting on the CH-OH group of donors;
With NAD+ or NADP+ as acceptor
Sysname
(2R,3S,4S)-leucoanthocyanidin:NADP+ 4-oxidoreductase
Reaction(IUBMB)
a (2R,3S,4S)-leucoanthocyanidin + NADP+ = a (2R,3R)-dihydroflavonol + NADPH + H+ [RN:R11500]
Reaction(KEGG)
Substrate
(2R,3S,4S)-leucoanthocyanidin [CPD:C21418];
NADP+ [CPD:C00006]
Product
(2R,3R)-dihydroflavonol [CPD:C21417];
NADPH [CPD:C00005];
H+ [CPD:C00080]
Comment
This plant enzyme, involved in the biosynthesis of anthocyanidins, is known to act on (+)-dihydrokaempferol, (+)-taxifolin, and (+)-dihydromyricetin, although some enzymes may act only on a subset of these compounds. Each dihydroflavonol is reduced to the corresponding cis-flavan-3,4-diol. NAD+ can act instead of NADP+, but more slowly.
History
EC 1.1.1.219 created 1989, modified 2016
Pathway
ec00941  Flavonoid biosynthesis
ec01100  Metabolic pathways
ec01110  Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
Orthology
K00091  dihydroflavonol-4-reductase
K13082  bifunctional dihydroflavonol 4-reductase/flavanone 4-reductase
Genes
ATH: AT5G42800(DFR)
ALY: 9299065 9301555
CRB: 17877190
CSAT: 104725195 104760679 104771418
EUS: EUTSA_v10003227mg
BRP: 103839279
BNA: 106403158 106447075 106448797
BOE: 106315758
RSZ: 108826061
THJ: 104801920
CPAP: 110820638
CIT: 102578060
EGR: 104448776
GMX: 100778253 548087(DFR1) 732626(DFR2)
LJA: Lj5g3v0108490.1(Lj5g3v0108490.1) Lj5g3v0108500.1(Lj5g3v0108500.1) Lj5g3v0108500.2(Lj5g3v0108500.2) Lj5g3v0108500.3(Lj5g3v0108500.3)
ADU: 107495990
LANG: 109343177
RCN: 112173668
PPER: 18788884
PMUM: 103320869
PAVI: 110771557
RCU: 8288959
JRE: 108991381
SLY: 544150
SPEN: 107010988
SOT: 102577487 102587107(DFR)
CANN: 107860031(DFR)
NTA: 107797232(Dfr2) 107803097(Dfr1)
NSY: 104212411
NTO: 104112288
INI: 109177611(DFR-A) 109177619(DFR-B) 109177620(DFR-C)
SIND: 105165774
OEU: 111409594
HAN: 110898892
LSV: 111897350
CCAV: 112508614
BVG: 104889670
SOE: 110794664
DOSA: Os01t0633500-00(Os01g0633500)
OBR: 102721875
BDI: 100845692
ATS: 109757643(LOC109757643)
ZMA: 100272982 100286107(pco110172(456))
SITA: 101769770
PDA: 103712715
DCT: 110101655
PEQ: 110038738
AOF: 109843175
SPE: Spro_2372
SRL: SOD_c21980(dfrA)
SPLY: Q5A_012250
PSI: S70_01580
PSX: DR96_3482
XCV: XCV2053
XAX: XACM_2030
LEZ: GLE_2100
LEM: LEN_2802
PAE: PA4631
PAEV: N297_4784
PAEI: N296_4784
PAEP: PA1S_25100
PAEM: U769_25355
PAEL: T223_25620
PAEG: AI22_08945
PAEC: M802_4782
PAEO: M801_4649
PMK: MDS_2722
PPU: PP_2986
PPF: Pput_2707
PPT: PPS_1020
PPX: T1E_3857(dfrA)
PPUD: DW66_2551
PMON: X969_09805
PMOT: X970_09465
PFL: PFL_2354
PPRC: PFLCHA0_c08240(dfrA)
PPRO: PPC_0834
PFS: PFLU_3292
PFB: VO64_3227
PKC: PKB_4666
PSEM: TO66_15555
PSOS: POS17_2932
PSET: THL1_4803
PSIL: PMA3_18415
ACB: A1S_2399
ABAD: ABD1_23940
ABAZ: P795_4920
MICT: FIU95_19950(gerKI)
NOC: Noc_0999
NWA: Nwat_2036
NTT: TAO_1098
HCH: HCH_04893
ADI: B5T_02946
APAC: S7S_11660
AXE: P40_13660
AMED: B224_4765
SALN: SALB1_2152
CVI: CV_0690(hpnA)
REH: H16_B2168(h16_B2168)
RME: Rmet_4170
BMA: BMAA1958
BMAL: DM55_3834
BMAE: DM78_4753
BMAQ: DM76_4531
BMAI: DM57_06275
BMAF: DM51_3641
BMAZ: BM44_3794
BMAB: BM45_4568
BPS: BPSS2165
BPM: BURPS1710b_A1280(hpnA)
BPSE: BDL_5633
BPSM: BBQ_3946
BPSU: BBN_5652
BPSD: BBX_4800
BPK: BBK_4938
BPSH: DR55_5571
BPSA: BBU_3830
BPSO: X996_5343
BUT: X994_4891
BTQ: BTQ_5529
BTJ: BTJ_4185
BTZ: BTL_4995
BTD: BTI_4584
BTV: BTHA_5227
BTHE: BTN_4653
BTHM: BTRA_4920
BTHA: DR62_4760
BTHL: BG87_4985
BOK: DM82_4152
BOC: BG90_3874
BVE: AK36_4991
BCEW: DM40_3320
BAM: Bamb_4873
BMU: Bmul_3257
BMK: DM80_4636
BMUL: NP80_3298
BDL: AK34_3168
BUB: BW23_3932
BLAT: WK25_29185
BSEM: WJ12_33580
BSTG: WT74_32410
BGU: KS03_3703
BUK: MYA_3346
BUL: BW21_4106
BGP: BGL_2c28800(hpnA)
BXE: Bxe_B0022
BXB: DR64_5386
BPH: Bphy_4126
BFN: OI25_5490
PPNO: DA70_09075
PPNM: LV28_21730
PSPU: NA29_21030
PAPI: SG18_00180
CABA: SBC2_70250(auaH_2)
POL: Bpro_1883
PNA: Pnap_2584
DAC: Daci_4497
MMS: mma_2262
JAG: GJA_2902
CARE: LT85_1870
BBAG: E1O_05350
NEU: NE1170(dfrA)
MEH: M301_2261
GSU: GSU0687(hpnA)
GSK: KN400_0661(hpnA)
GME: Gmet_2821(hpnA)
GLO: Glov_2234
GBM: Gbem_3361(hpnA)
GEO: Geob_3663(hpnA)
GEM: GM21_0884
GEB: GM18_3440
PPD: Ppro_1190
DHY: DESAM_23203(dfrA)
DALK: DSCA_11840(galE1)
SCL: sce8013(dfrA)
HOH: Hoch_3249
SFU: Sfum_0864
MHUA: MCHK_3527
AVI: Avi_5234
RLE: RL0304
BRA: BRADO5622
BBT: BBta_6145
BRS: S23_17640
AOL: S58_19840
BRAD: BF49_5100
MDI: METDI2701
MEX: Mext_1940
MCH: Mchl_2216
MPO: Mpop_1831
META: Y590_09020
MAQU: Maq22A_c25235(wcaG)
BID: Bind_3152
MSL: Msil_3239
MTUN: MTUNDRAET4_2109(dfrA)
HDN: Hden_0472
MALG: MALG_03338
ZMO: ZMO0867
ZMN: Za10_0425
ZMM: Zmob_0430
ZMB: ZZ6_0428
ZMI: ZCP4_0444
NAR: Saro_3654
SPHP: LH20_11690
SMAZ: LH19_07945
SSAN: NX02_01600
SPKC: KC8_05505
SECH: B18_12855
GOX: GOX2253
ACR: Acry_0121
GDI: GDI1625(dfrA)
GDJ: Gdia_1830
GXY: GLX_17380
GXL: H845_3224
APK: APA386B_1688(dfrA)
ASZ: ASN_2213(dfrA) ASN_2483(hpnA)
ABG: Asbog_02601(hpnA)
SHUM: STHU_03860
RRU: Rru_A0058
RRF: F11_00295
MAG: amb1364
MAGX: XM1_1987
MAGN: WV31_17670
TMO: TMO_2167
MAGQ: MGMAQ_1498
BBA: Bd0142(dfrA)
BBAT: Bdt_0132(dfrA)
BBW: BDW_00590
BBAC: EP01_12710
BEX: A11Q_2332
AFR: AFE_2122
ACU: Atc_2238
ATX: GCD22_00870(dfrA)
BJS: MY9_2614
BEO: BEH_10940
LMOE: BN418_1737
LMOB: BN419_1732
ESI: Exig_1479
EAN: Eab7_1380
PSWU: SY83_10020
AAC: Aaci_2444
AAD: TC41_2734
LLK: LLKF_1639(ypgB)
LLT: CVCAS_1426(ypgB)
LLS: lilo_1441(ypgB)
LLX: NCDO2118_1540(ypgB)
LLM: llmg_0992
LLR: llh_4985
LLW: kw2_1472(hpnA)
LLJ: LG36_0851(ypgB)
SMUA: SMUFR_0327
SSA: SSA_0314(wcaG)
SOR: SOR_1843
SLU: KE3_0781
LBR: LVIS_0216
CAE: SMB_G3541
CAY: CEA_G3507
CBE: Cbei_3659
CBZ: Cbs_3659
CBEI: LF65_04124
CKL: CKL_0562
CKR: CKR_0499
BPRO: PMF13cell1_05377(galE_2)
STH: STH2819
TIT: Thit_2120
ERH: ERH_1573
MTU: Rv0139
MTV: RVBD_0139
MTC: MT0147
MRA: MRA_0146
MTD: UDA_0139
MTUE: J114_00765
MTUL: TBHG_00139
MBB: BCG_0175
MPA: MAP_3556
MAO: MAP4_0218
MAVI: RC58_17565
MAVU: RE97_01035
MLP: MLM_0582
MHAD: B586_01690
MMAG: MMAD_52390
GBR: Gbro_3838
GOR: KTR9_3777
GRU: GCWB2_19385(rfbB)
TPR: Tpau_3823
SHY: SHJG_1171
SALS: SLNWT_6995
STRE: GZL_02239
STRD: NI25_36475
SRJ: SRO_7240
KSK: KSE_22930
AAU: AAur_1122
LMOI: VV02_00615
CFL: Cfla_0056
PSIM: KR76_24205
FAL: FRAAL1978
AMD: AMED_6861
AMN: RAM_35205
AMM: AMES_6756
AMZ: B737_6756
AMQ: AMETH_4237(galE)
AMI: Amir_4080
KAL: KALB_2877
ALO: CRK57495
SAQ: Sare_2604
CAI: Caci_6834
CWO: Cwoe_3151
SYN: slr1706(dfrA)
SYZ: MYO_16700(dfrA)
SYY: SYNGTS_0664(dfrA)
SYT: SYNGTI_0664(dfrA)
SYS: SYNPCCN_0663(dfrA)
SYQ: SYNPCCP_0663(dfrA)
SYJ: D082_01900(dfrA)
TEL: tlr1370
PMM: PMM1377
MPK: VL20_1331
CYT: cce_2231(dfrA)
TER: Tery_3280
GVI: glr1747
NSH: GXM_03722
ANB: ANA_C20332(hpnA)
CTHE: Chro_5346
CEO: ETSB_0279(dfrA)
CER: RGRSB_0234(dfrA)
HAU: Haur_1207
TTR: Tter_2599
RBA: RB8551(hpnA)
PSL: Psta_0996
PIR: VN12_18040(galE_2)
BVO: Pan97_52030(rmlB)
FTJ: FTUN_6628
IPA: Isop_1955
ACA: ACP_0818
ABAS: ACPOL_1268
SUS: Acid_1261
EPO: Epro_0310
ETI: RSTT_556
BTHO: Btheta7330_00043(rfbB)
BXY: BXY_21630
BOA: Bovatus_03134(rfbB_3)
BVU: BVU_1089
PRU: PRU_2754
POC: NCTC13071_00544(galE_1)
DORI: FH5T_09310
MBAS: ALGA_1889
SRU: SRU_0829(dfrA)
SRM: SRM_01008(dfrA)
RMR: Rmar_2558
CPI: Cpin_0690
FLN: FLA_5973
SGN: SGRA_3883
SMIZ: 4412673_00924(galE_1) 4412673_03529(hldD)
STHA: NCTC11429_01845(hldD)
MUC: MuYL_0404
MGOT: MgSA37_03875(strE)
CHU: CHU_0002
DFE: Dfer_2955
LBY: Lbys_1780
FAE: FAES_1560 FAES_5488(dfrA)
GFO: GFO_0111
GFL: GRFL_1883
FJO: Fjoh_0551
FJG: BB050_01967(gerKI)
FIN: KQS_13170
FSN: GS03_00889(fcl_2)
COC: Coch_0180
ZPR: ZPR_0493
MARM: YQ22_06265
DDO: I597_0951
MLT: VC82_1073
NDO: DDD_1058
MPW: MPR_3333
WIN: WPG_1676
TMAR: MARIT_3022
KOS: KORDIASMS9_00624(gerKI)
MARF: CJ739_1156
MESQ: C7H62_0808
FBA: FIC_01861
RAI: RA0C_0799
RAR: RIA_1687
RAG: B739_1403
RAE: G148_1050
RAT: M949_1832
CTE: CT1931
IAL: IALB_1689
MRO: MROS_2747
CPRV: CYPRO_2395
TLE: Tlet_0314
TME: Tmel_1833
TAF: THA_128
THER: Y592_00725
FNO: Fnod_1442
MARN: LN42_03600
DTN: DTL3_1685
ASAC: ATHSA_1555
CEX: CSE_00950
NDE: NIDE0700
NMV: NITMOv2_0575(dfrA)
NIO: NITINOP_0338(dfrA)
NJA: NSJP_1681(dfrA)
BANA: BARAN1_1139(dfrA)
MOX: DAMO_0002(dfrA)
HME: HFX_6211(nolA)
HTU: Htur_5260
NMG: Nmag_3021
NAT: NJ7G_1387
SALI: L593_08435
TAG: Tagg_0345
 » show all
Reference
1  [PMID:24241054]
  Authors
Heller W, Forkmann G, Britsch L, Grisebach H
  Title
Enzymatic reduction of (+)-dihydroflavonols to flavan-3,4-cis-diols with flower extracts from Matthiola incana and its role in anthocyanin biosynthesis.
  Journal
Planta 165:284-7 (1985)
DOI:10.1007/BF00395052
Reference
2  [PMID:16664326]
  Authors
Stafford HA, Lester HH.
  Title
Flavan-3-ol Biosynthesis : The Conversion of (+)-Dihydromyricetin to Its Flavan-3,4-Diol (Leucodelphinidin) and to (+)-Gallocatechin by Reductases Extracted from Tissue Cultures of Ginkgo biloba and Pseudotsuga menziesii.
  Journal
Plant Physiol 78:791-794 (1985)
DOI:10.1104/pp.78.4.791
Reference
3  [PMID:3293532]
  Authors
Fischer D, Stich K, Britsch L, Grisebach H
  Title
Purification and characterization of (+)dihydroflavonol (3-hydroxyflavanone) 4-reductase from flowers of Dahlia variabilis.
  Journal
Arch Biochem Biophys 264:40-7 (1988)
DOI:10.1016/0003-9861(88)90567-X
Reference
4  [PMID:21701830]
  Authors
Li H, Qiu J, Chen F, Lv X, Fu C, Zhao D, Hua X, Zhao Q
  Title
Molecular characterization and expression analysis of dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) gene in Saussurea medusa.
  Journal
Mol Biol Rep 39:2991-9 (2012)
DOI:10.1007/s11033-011-1061-2
Other DBs
ExplorEnz - The Enzyme Database: 1.1.1.219
IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature: 1.1.1.219
ExPASy - ENZYME nomenclature database: 1.1.1.219
BRENDA, the Enzyme Database: 1.1.1.219
CAS: 83682-99-9
LinkDB

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