KEGG   ENZYME: 1.1.1.219
Entry
EC 1.1.1.219                Enzyme                                 

Name
dihydroflavonol 4-reductase;
dihydrokaempferol 4-reductase;
dihydromyricetin reductase;
NADPH-dihydromyricetin reductase;
dihydroquercetin reductase;
DFR (gene name);
cis-3,4-leucopelargonidin:NADP+ 4-oxidoreductase;
dihydroflavanol 4-reductase (incorrect)
Class
Oxidoreductases;
Acting on the CH-OH group of donors;
With NAD+ or NADP+ as acceptor
Sysname
(2R,3S,4S)-leucoanthocyanidin:NADP+ 4-oxidoreductase
Reaction(IUBMB)
a (2R,3S,4S)-leucoanthocyanidin + NADP+ = a (2R,3R)-dihydroflavonol + NADPH + H+ [RN:R11500]
Reaction(KEGG)
Substrate
(2R,3S,4S)-leucoanthocyanidin [CPD:C21418];
NADP+ [CPD:C00006]
Product
(2R,3R)-dihydroflavonol [CPD:C21417];
NADPH [CPD:C00005];
H+ [CPD:C00080]
Comment
This plant enzyme, involved in the biosynthesis of anthocyanidins, is known to act on (+)-dihydrokaempferol, (+)-taxifolin, and (+)-dihydromyricetin, although some enzymes may act only on a subset of these compounds. Each dihydroflavonol is reduced to the corresponding cis-flavan-3,4-diol. NAD+ can act instead of NADP+, but more slowly.
History
EC 1.1.1.219 created 1989, modified 2016
Pathway
ec00941  Flavonoid biosynthesis
ec01100  Metabolic pathways
ec01110  Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
Orthology
K00091  dihydroflavonol-4-reductase
K13082  bifunctional dihydroflavonol 4-reductase/flavanone 4-reductase
Genes
ATH: AT5G42800(DFR)
ALY: 9299065 9301555
CRB: 17877190
CSAT: 104725195 104760679 104771418
EUS: EUTSA_v10003227mg
BRP: 103839279
BNA: 106403158 106447075 106448797
BOE: 106315758
RSZ: 108826061
THJ: 104801920
CPAP: 110820638
CIT: 102578060
PVY: 116119408
EGR: 104448776
GMX: 100778253 548087(DFR1) 732626(DFR2)
LJA: Lj5g3v0108490.1(Lj5g3v0108490.1) Lj5g3v0108500.1(Lj5g3v0108500.1) Lj5g3v0108500.2(Lj5g3v0108500.2) Lj5g3v0108500.3(Lj5g3v0108500.3)
ADU: 107495990
LANG: 109343177
RCN: 112173668
PPER: 18788884
PMUM: 103320869
PAVI: 110771557
PDUL: 117615194
RCU: 8288959
JRE: 108991381
SLY: 544150
SPEN: 107010988
SOT: 102577487 102587107(DFR)
CANN: 107860031(DFR)
NTA: 107797232(Dfr2) 107803097(Dfr1)
NSY: 104212411
NTO: 104112288
INI: 109177611(DFR-A) 109177619(DFR-B) 109177620(DFR-C)
SIND: 105165774
OEU: 111409594
EGT: 105965285
HAN: 110898892
LSV: 111897350
CCAV: 112508614
BVG: 104889670
SOE: 110794664
DOSA: Os01t0633500-00(Os01g0633500)
OBR: 102721875
BDI: 100845692
ATS: 109757643
ZMA: 100272982 100286107(pco110172(456))
SITA: 101769770
PHAI: 112892049
PDA: 103712715
DCT: 110101655
PEQ: 110038738
AOF: 109843175
NOC: Noc_0999
NHL: Nhal_2984
NWA: Nwat_2036
NTT: TAO_1098
NTG: NSCAC_0727(dfrA)
SALN: SALB1_2152
REH: H16_B2168(h16_B2168)
CNC: CNE_2c21530(dfrA)
RME: Rmet_4170
BMA: BMAA1958
BMAL: DM55_3834
BMAE: DM78_4753
BMAQ: DM76_4531
BMAI: DM57_06275
BMAF: DM51_3641
BMAZ: BM44_3794
BMAB: BM45_4568
BPS: BPSS2165
BPM: BURPS1710b_A1280(hpnA)
BPSE: BDL_5633
BPSM: BBQ_3946
BPSU: BBN_5652
BPSD: BBX_4800
BPK: BBK_4938
BPSH: DR55_5571
BPSA: BBU_3830
BPSO: X996_5343
BUT: X994_4891
BTQ: BTQ_5529
BTJ: BTJ_4185
BTZ: BTL_4995
BTD: BTI_4584
BTV: BTHA_5227
BTHE: BTN_4653
BTHM: BTRA_4920
BTHA: DR62_4760
BTHL: BG87_4985
BOK: DM82_4152
BOC: BG90_3874
BCN: Bcen_5311
BCJ: BCAM2735
BCEN: DM39_5146
BCEW: DM40_3320
BCEO: I35_6621
BAM: Bamb_4873
BMU: Bmul_3257
BMK: DM80_4636
BMUL: NP80_3298
BCT: GEM_5671
BCED: DM42_5249
BDL: AK34_3168
BCON: NL30_17550
BUB: BW23_3932
BLAT: WK25_29185
BTEI: WS51_10355
BSEM: WJ12_33580
BPSL: WS57_00730
BMEC: WJ16_32030
BSTG: WT74_32410
BGU: KS03_3703
BGO: BM43_6644
BUK: MYA_3346
BUL: BW21_4106
BGP: BGL_2c28800(hpnA)
BXE: Bxe_B0022
BXB: DR64_5386
BPH: Bphy_4126
BFN: OI25_5490
PPNO: DA70_09075
PPNM: LV28_21730
PPUL: RO07_16120
PSPU: NA29_21030
PAPI: SG18_00180
CABA: SBC2_70250(auaH_2)
BBAG: E1O_05350
GSU: GSU0687(hpnA)
GSK: KN400_0661(hpnA)
GME: Gmet_2821(hpnA)
GUR: Gura_1019
GLO: Glov_2234
GEO: Geob_3663(hpnA)
GEM: GM21_0884
GEB: GM18_3440
GBM: Gbem_3361(hpnA)
GBN: GEOBRER4_08480(hpnA)
PPD: Ppro_1190
DHY: DESAM_23203(dfrA)
SFU: Sfum_0864
MDI: METDI2701
MEX: Mext_1940
MCH: Mchl_2216
MPO: Mpop_1831
MET: M446_6351
MNO: Mnod_7142
MOR: MOC_5997
META: Y590_09020
MAQU: Maq22A_c25235(wcaG)
BID: Bind_3152
MSL: Msil_3239
MTUN: MTUNDRAET4_2109(dfrA)
HDN: Hden_0472
ZMO: ZMO0867
ZMN: Za10_0425
ZMM: Zmob_0430
ZMB: ZZ6_0428
ZMI: ZCP4_0444
SPHM: G432_09205
GOX: GOX2253
GOH: B932_2749
ACR: Acry_0121
GDI: GDI1625(dfrA)
GDJ: Gdia_1830
GXY: GLX_17380
GXL: H845_3224
APK: APA386B_1688(dfrA)
ASZ: ASN_2213(dfrA)
ABG: Asbog_02601(hpnA)
EBLA: JGUZn3_04130(auaH)
RRU: Rru_A0058
RRF: F11_00295
MAG: amb1364
MAGX: XM1_1987
MAGN: WV31_17670
MAGQ: MGMAQ_1498
AFR: AFE_2122
ACU: Atc_2238
ATX: GCD22_00870(dfrA)
AAC: Aaci_2444
AAD: TC41_2734
MSTO: MSTO_53950
MSEO: MSEO_00710
SYN: slr1706(dfrA)
SYZ: MYO_16700(dfrA)
SYY: SYNGTS_0664(dfrA)
SYT: SYNGTI_0664(dfrA)
SYS: SYNPCCN_0663(dfrA)
SYQ: SYNPCCP_0663(dfrA)
SYJ: D082_01900(dfrA)
AMR: AM1_1585
TEL: tlr1370
MPK: VL20_1331
CYT: cce_2231(dfrA)
TER: Tery_3280
GVI: glr1747
GLJ: GKIL_2057
ANA: alr4268
NSH: GXM_03722
AVA: Ava_1218
ANB: ANA_C20332(hpnA)
CEO: ETSB_0279(dfrA)
CER: RGRSB_0234(dfrA)
LKB: LPTSP3_g03350(hpnA)
ACA: ACP_0818
ABAS: ACPOL_1268
SUS: Acid_1261
NDE: NIDE0700
NMV: NITMOv2_0575(dfrA)
NIO: NITINOP_0338(dfrA)
NJA: NSJP_1681(dfrA)
LFC: LFE_1759
BANA: BARAN1_1139(dfrA)
MOX: DAMO_0002(dfrA)
 » show all
Reference
1  [PMID:24241054]
  Authors
Heller W, Forkmann G, Britsch L, Grisebach H
  Title
Enzymatic reduction of (+)-dihydroflavonols to flavan-3,4-cis-diols with flower extracts from Matthiola incana and its role in anthocyanin biosynthesis.
  Journal
Planta 165:284-7 (1985)
DOI:10.1007/BF00395052
Reference
2  [PMID:16664326]
  Authors
Stafford HA, Lester HH.
  Title
Flavan-3-ol Biosynthesis : The Conversion of (+)-Dihydromyricetin to Its Flavan-3,4-Diol (Leucodelphinidin) and to (+)-Gallocatechin by Reductases Extracted from Tissue Cultures of Ginkgo biloba and Pseudotsuga menziesii.
  Journal
Plant Physiol 78:791-794 (1985)
DOI:10.1104/pp.78.4.791
Reference
3  [PMID:3293532]
  Authors
Fischer D, Stich K, Britsch L, Grisebach H
  Title
Purification and characterization of (+)dihydroflavonol (3-hydroxyflavanone) 4-reductase from flowers of Dahlia variabilis.
  Journal
Arch Biochem Biophys 264:40-7 (1988)
DOI:10.1016/0003-9861(88)90567-X
Reference
4  [PMID:21701830]
  Authors
Li H, Qiu J, Chen F, Lv X, Fu C, Zhao D, Hua X, Zhao Q
  Title
Molecular characterization and expression analysis of dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) gene in Saussurea medusa.
  Journal
Mol Biol Rep 39:2991-9 (2012)
DOI:10.1007/s11033-011-1061-2
Other DBs
ExplorEnz - The Enzyme Database: 1.1.1.219
IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature: 1.1.1.219
ExPASy - ENZYME nomenclature database: 1.1.1.219
BRENDA, the Enzyme Database: 1.1.1.219
CAS: 83682-99-9
LinkDB

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