Acting on the CH-OH group of donors;
With oxygen as acceptor
choline + 2 O2 + H2O = betaine + 2 H2O2 (overall reaction) [RN:
(1a) choline + O2 = betaine aldehyde + H2O2 [RN:
(1b) betaine aldehyde + O2 + H2O = betaine + H2O2 [RN:
A flavoprotein (FAD). In many bacteria, plants and animals, the osmoprotectant betaine is synthesized using different enzymes to catalyse the conversion of (1) choline into betaine aldehyde and (2) betaine aldehyde into betaine. In plants, the first reaction is catalysed by EC
, choline monooxygenase, whereas in animals and many bacteria, it is catalysed by either membrane-bound choline dehydrogenase (EC
) or soluble choline oxidase (EC
) . The enzyme involved in the second step, EC
, betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase, appears to be the same in those plants, animals and bacteria that use two separate enzymes.
EC 22.214.171.124 created 1978, modified 2005, modified 2007
ec00260 Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism
RHA: RHA1_ro01805 RHA1_ro01877
ROA: Pd630_LPD05964 Pd630_LPD06042
RKO: JWS14_09255 JWS14_09600
SLC: SL103_14845 SL103_24015
STRO: STRMOE7_04980 STRMOE7_31465
SHUN: DWB77_00888(codA_1) DWB77_06707(codA_2)
SINE: KI385_05940 KI385_36285
GCR: GcLGCM259_0568(codA) » show all
Ikuta S, Imamura S, Misaki H, Horiuti Y.
Purification and characterization of choline oxidase from Arthrobacter globiformis.
Rozwadowski KL, Khachatourians GG, Selvaraj G.
Choline oxidase, a catabolic enzyme in Arthrobacter pascens, facilitates adaptation to osmotic stress in Escherichia coli.
Rand T, Halkier T, Hansen OC
Structural characterization and mapping of the covalently linked FAD cofactor in choline oxidase from Arthrobacter globiformis.
Gadda G, Powell NL, Menon P.
The trimethylammonium headgroup of choline is a major determinant for substrate binding and specificity in choline oxidase.
Fan F, Gadda G.
On the catalytic mechanism of choline oxidase.
Waditee R, Tanaka Y, Aoki K, Hibino T, Jikuya H, Takano J, Takabe T, Takabe T
Isolation and functional characterization of N-methyltransferases that catalyze betaine synthesis from glycine in a halotolerant photosynthetic organism Aphanothece halophytica.
Fan F, Ghanem M, Gadda G
Cloning, sequence analysis, and purification of choline oxidase from Arthrobacter globiformis: a bacterial enzyme involved in osmotic stress tolerance.
Kinetic mechanism of choline oxidase from Arthrobacter globiformis.
ExplorEnz - The Enzyme Database: 126.96.36.199
ExPASy - ENZYME nomenclature database: 188.8.131.52
LinkDB All DBs