KEGG   DISEASE: Nasopharyngeal cancer
Entry
H00054                      Disease                                
Name
Nasopharyngeal cancer
Description
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a rare disease in most parts of the world, with an age-standardised annual incidence of less than 1 per 100000. However, in Southern China, parts of Southeast Asia and the Mediterranean basin, NPC is an endemic disease with an incidence of 10-30 per 100000. Genome-wide studies have unravelled multiple chromosomal abnormalities with involvement of specific oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Alterations of genes such as Ras association domain family 1A (RASSF1A), p16/INK4A, p14/ARF suggest that multiple cellular pathways were dysregulated in the NPC cells. Studies on the precancerous lesions revealed early genetic changes and a critical role of Epstein- Barr virus (EBV) latent infection in the development of this cancer.
Category
Cancer
Brite
Human diseases [BR:br08402]
 Cancers
  Head and neck cancers
   H00054  Nasopharyngeal cancer
Human diseases in ICD-11 classification [BR:br08403]
 02 Neoplasms
  Malignant neoplasms, except primary neoplasms of lymphoid, haematopoietic, central nervous system or related tissues
   Malignant neoplasms, stated or presumed to be primary, of specified sites, except of lymphoid, haematopoietic, central nervous system or related tissues
    Malignant neoplasms of lip, oral cavity or pharynx
     2B6B  Malignant neoplasms of nasopharynx
      H00054  Nasopharyngeal cancer
Related
pathway
hsa05200  Pathways in cancer
hsa05169  Epstein-Barr virus infection
Gene
(NPCA3) MST1R [HSA:4486] [KO:K05100]
RASSF1 (promoter hypermethylation) [HSA:11186] [KO:K09850]
CDKN2A (promoter hypermethylation) [HSA:1029] [KO:K06621]
BCL2 (overexpression) [HSA:596] [KO:K02161]
EDNRB (promoter hypermethylation) [HSA:1910] [KO:K04198]
CADM1 (promoter hypermethylation) [HSA:23705] [KO:K06781]
CDH1 (decreased expression) [HSA:999] [KO:K05689]
Carcinogen
Formaldehyde [CPD:C00067]
Salted fish (Chinese-style)
Tobacco smoking and tobacco smoke
Wood dust
Pathogen
Human herpesvirus 4 (Epstein-Barr virus) [GN:T40079]
Other DBs
ICD-11: 2B6B
ICD-10: C11
MeSH: D009303
OMIM: 617075
Reference
PMID:26951679 (NPCA3)
  Authors
Dai W, Zheng H, Cheung AK, Tang CS, Ko JM, Wong BW, Leong MM, Sham PC, Cheung F, Kwong DL, Ngan RK, Ng WT, Yau CC, Pan J, Peng X, Tung S, Zhang Z, Ji M, Chiang AK, Lee AW, Lee VH, Lam KO, Au KH, Cheng HC, Yiu HH, Lung ML
  Title
Whole-exome sequencing identifies MST1R as a genetic susceptibility gene in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
  Journal
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 113:3317-22 (2016)
DOI:10.1073/pnas.1523436113
Reference
PMID:12450731 (GENE)
  Authors
Lo KW, Huang DP.
  Title
Genetic and epigenetic changes in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
  Journal
Semin Cancer Biol 12:451-62 (2002)
DOI:10.1016/S1044579X02000883
Reference
  Authors
Chan AT
  Title
Head and neck cancer: treatment of nasopharyngeal cancer.
  Journal
Ann Oncol 16 Suppl 2:ii265-8 (2005)
DOI:10.1093/annonc/mdi732
Reference
  Authors
Young LS, Rickinson AB.
  Title
Epstein-Barr virus: 40 years on.
  Journal
Nat Rev Cancer 4:757-68 (2004)
DOI:10.1038/nrc1452
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