KEGG   ORTHOLOGY: K22212
Entry
K22212                      KO                                     
Symbol
mleA, mleS
Name
malolactic enzyme [EC:4.1.1.101]
Pathway
map00620  Pyruvate metabolism
map01100  Metabolic pathways
map01120  Microbial metabolism in diverse environments
Brite
KEGG Orthology (KO) [BR:ko00001]
 09100 Metabolism
  09101 Carbohydrate metabolism
   00620 Pyruvate metabolism
    K22212  mleA, mleS; malolactic enzyme
Enzymes [BR:ko01000]
 4. Lyases
  4.1  Carbon-carbon lyases
   4.1.1  Carboxy-lyases
    4.1.1.101  malolactic enzyme
     K22212  mleA, mleS; malolactic enzyme
Other DBs
RN: R11074
COG: COG0281
GO: 0043883
Genes
KOA: H3L93_07380
BSON: S101395_00948
BGY: BGLY_0768
STEA: C0679_15325
SAR: SAR0824
SUU: M013TW_0759
SUE: SAOV_0808
SUQ: HMPREF0772_12411
SUD: ST398NM01_0847
SUX: SAEMRSA15_06950
SUG: SAPIG0847
SUF: SARLGA251_07020(mleA)
SAUA: SAAG_01193
SAUS: SA40_0708(mleA)
SAUU: SA957_0723(mleA)
SAUG: SA268_0721(mleA)
SAB: SAB0723
SAUB: C248_0858
SAUC: CA347_788
SAMS: NI36_03905
SCAP: AYP1020_2097(maeA)
SSH: NCTC13712_00737(maeA)
LMOE: BN418_2299
LMOB: BN419_2299
LMOQ: LM6179_2684(malS)
LMS: LMLG_2289
LGZ: NCTC10812_00377(maeA_1) NCTC10812_00594(maeA_2)
GSA: FOC50_03715(maeA)
LLA: L121483(mleS)
LLK: LLKF_0928(mleS)
LLT: CVCAS_0863(mleS)
LLS: lilo_0851(mleS)
LLX: NCDO2118_0920(mleS)
LLJ: LG36_1425(mleS)
LLM: llmg_1638(mleS)
LLI: uc509_0940(mleS)
LLW: kw2_0875
LGR: LCGT_1018
LGV: LCGL_1022
LPK: LACPI_0666(mleS)
SMU: SMU_137(mleS)
SMJ: SMULJ23_0115(mleS)
SMUA: SMUFR_0114(sfcA)
SSA: SSA_0297(mleS)
SGO: SGO_0372
SGA: GALLO_2049(mleS)
SGG: SGGBAA2069_c20070(mleS)
SGT: SGGB_2032(mleS)
SOR: SOR_0297(mleS)
STK: STP_1531
STB: SGPB_0676(mleS.1) SGPB_1856(mleS.2)
SMN: SMA_1946(mleS)
SIF: Sinf_1751(mleS)
SIE: SCIM_1365(mleS)
SIB: SIR_0584(mleS)
SCG: SCI_1645(mleS)
SCON: SCRE_1601(mleS)
SCOS: SCR2_1601(mleS)
SLU: KE3_1857
STRG: SRT_01380(sfcA)
SVB: NCTC12167_01602(mleS)
SFER: NCTC12278_00569(mleS)
SAUP: NCTC3168_01064(mleS)
SURN: NCTC13766_01817(mleS)
SVF: NCTC3166_01684(mleS)
LAC: LBA1075
LAD: LA14_1089
LAF: SD55_1087
LAE: LBAT_0400
LCA: LSEI_0740
LCS: LCBD_0816(mae1)
LCE: LC2W_0816
LCW: BN194_08070(mleA)
LPAP: LBPC_0667
LCB: LCABL_08060(mleS)
LRH: LGG_00726(sfcA)
LRG: LRHM_0704
LRL: LC705_00719(sfcA)
LRA: LRHK_722
LPL: lp_1118(mleS)
LPJ: JDM1_0922(mleS)
LPT: zj316_1153(mleS)
LPS: LPST_C0897(mleS)
LPZ: Lp16_0898
LRE: Lreu_1532
LRF: LAR_1441
LRT: LRI_0433
LFF: LBFF_1737
LVA: LV515_01475(maeA)
LPON: LP475_07030(maeA)
LSN: LSA_02100(mleA)
LFV: LF543_06275(maeA)
LBH: Lbuc_2270
LBN: LBUCD034_2368(mleS)
LHIL: G8J22_02692(mleS)
LBR: LVIS_2203
LSL: LSL_1313
LSI: HN6_01094
LSJ: LSJ_1303c
PPE: PEPE_1617
PPEN: T256_07955
PCE: PECL_1506(mleA)
LSA: LCA_0441(mleS)
LHB: D1010_15455(maeA)
OOE: OEOE_1564
LME: LEUM_1005
LCI: LCK_00751(mleS)
LKI: LKI_10035
LGS: LEGAS_0941(mleS)
WKO: WKK_06580
EFC: EFAU004_02124(mleA)
EFAU: EFAU085_02153(mleA)
EFU: HMPREF0351_12120(sfcA)
EFM: M7W_884
EHR: EHR_08090
ECAS: ECBG_03055
EMU: EMQU_2067(sfcA)
EDU: LIU_11430
ESG: EsVE80_04850(sfcA)
ECEC: NCTC12421_02474(mleA)
CAE: SMB_G1614(malS) SMB_G1621(malS)
CAY: CEA_G1604(malS) CEA_G1611
CSB: CLSA_c28840(malS)
CBV: U729_2458
CTYK: CTK_C00760(malS)
AIN: Acin_1469(sfcA)
BDE: BDP_1119
BDN: BBDE_1071
BAST: BAST_0549
PDO: PSDT_0694
APV: Apar_1191
LBA: Lebu_1156
LWD: JCM16777_1208(mleS)
AG: ACX50963(mle)
 » show all
Reference
  Authors
Schumann C, Michlmayr H, Del Hierro AM, Kulbe KD, Jiranek V, Eder R, Nguyen TH
  Title
Malolactic enzyme from Oenococcus oeni: heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and biochemical characterization.
  Journal
Bioengineered 4:147-52 (2013)
DOI:10.4161/bioe.22988
  Sequence
Reference
PMID:8132158
  Authors
Denayrolles M, Aigle M, Lonvaud-Funel A
  Title
Cloning and sequence analysis of the gene encoding Lactococcus lactis malolactic enzyme: relationships with malic enzymes.
  Journal
FEMS Microbiol Lett 116:79-86 (1994)
DOI:10.1111/j.1574-6968.1994.tb06679.x
  Sequence
[lla:L121483]
LinkDB

KEGG   ENZYME: 4.1.1.101
Entry
EC 4.1.1.101                Enzyme                                 
Name
malolactic enzyme;
mleA (gene name);
mleS (gene name)
Class
Lyases;
Carbon-carbon lyases;
Carboxy-lyases
Sysname
(S)-malate carboxy-lyase
Reaction(IUBMB)
(S)-malate = (S)-lactate + CO2 [RN:R11074]
Reaction(KEGG)
R11074
Substrate
(S)-malate [CPD:C00149]
Product
(S)-lactate [CPD:C00186];
CO2 [CPD:C00011]
Comment
The enzyme is involved in the malolactic fermentation of wine, which results in a natural decrease in acidity and favorable changes in wine flavors. It has been purified from several lactic acid bacteria, including Leuconostoc mesenteroides [1], Lactobacillus plantarum [2], and Oenococcus oeni [3,4]. The enzyme contains a tightly bound NAD+ cofactor and requires Mn2+.
History
EC 4.1.1.101 created 2015
Pathway
ec00620  Pyruvate metabolism
ec01100  Metabolic pathways
ec01120  Microbial metabolism in diverse environments
Orthology
K22212  malolactic enzyme
Genes
KOAH3L93_07380
BSONS101395_00948
BGYBGLY_0768
STEAC0679_15325
SARSAR0824
SUUM013TW_0759
SUESAOV_0808
SUQHMPREF0772_12411
SUDST398NM01_0847
SUXSAEMRSA15_06950
SUGSAPIG0847
SUFSARLGA251_07020(mleA)
SAUASAAG_01193
SAUERSAU_000745
SAUSSA40_0708(mleA)
SAUUSA957_0723(mleA)
SAUGSA268_0721(mleA)
SABSAB0723
SAUBC248_0858
SAUCCA347_788
SAMSNI36_03905
SUHSAMSHR1132_07140
SCAPAYP1020_2097(maeA)
SSHNCTC13712_00737(maeA)
LMOEBN418_2299
LMOBBN419_2299
LMOQLM6179_2684(malS)
LMSLMLG_2289
LMJLMOG_01326
LWIUE46_06920
LGZNCTC10812_00377(maeA_1) NCTC10812_00594(maeA_2)
GSAFOC50_03715(maeA)
LLAL121483(mleS)
LLKLLKF_0928(mleS)
LLTCVCAS_0863(mleS)
LLSlilo_0851(mleS)
LLDP620_04890
LLXNCDO2118_0920(mleS)
LLJLG36_1425(mleS)
LLMllmg_1638(mleS)
LLRllh_8140 llh_8145
LLNLLNZ_08430
LLIuc509_0940(mleS)
LLWkw2_0875
LGRLCGT_1018
LGVLCGL_1022
LPKLACPI_0666(mleS)
LRNCMV25_01395
LACTD7I46_00835
LACKFLP15_06360
LTIJW886_07140
LCARBHS00_07320
LPAABHS01_08120
SMUSMU_137(mleS)
SMUTSMUGS5_00590
SMJSMULJ23_0115(mleS)
SMUASMUFR_0114(sfcA)
SSASSA_0297(mleS)
SGOSGO_0372
SGAGALLO_2049(mleS)
SGGSGGBAA2069_c20070(mleS)
SGTSGGB_2032(mleS)
SORSOR_0297(mleS)
STKSTP_1531
STBSGPB_0676(mleS.1) SGPB_1856(mleS.2)
SCPHMPREF0833_10079
SSAHHSISS4_01291
SMNSMA_1946(mleS)
SIFSinf_1751(mleS)
SIESCIM_1365(mleS)
SIBSIR_0584(mleS)
SCGSCI_1645(mleS)
SCONSCRE_1601(mleS)
SCOSSCR2_1601(mleS)
SLUKE3_1857
SSOBDK181_03245
SPEIEHW89_05110
SRATFY406_07155
STRGSRT_01380(sfcA)
SVBNCTC12167_01602(mleS)
SFERNCTC12278_00569(mleS)
SAUPNCTC3168_01064(mleS)
SURNNCTC13766_01817(mleS)
SVFNCTC3166_01684(mleS)
LACLBA1075
LADLA14_1089
LAFSD55_1087
LAWLACWKB8_1669
LAELBAT_0400
LJEBUE77_00990
LKLDKL58_08555
LAPIDKL56_01220
LHSDLD54_07965
LPAIGYM71_01915
LCALSEI_0740
LCZLCAZH_0682
LCSLCBD_0816(mae1)
LCELC2W_0816
LCWBN194_08070(mleA)
LCLLOCK919_0843
LPQAF91_02850
LPILBPG_02805
LPAPLBPC_0667
LCBLCABL_08060(mleS)
LCXLCA12A_1765
LRHLGG_00726(sfcA)
LRGLRHM_0704
LRLLC705_00719(sfcA)
LRALRHK_722
LROLOCK900_0669
LRCLOCK908_0718
LCHIKG086_02955
LZEKG087_03455
LPLlp_1118(mleS)
LPJJDM1_0922(mleS)
LPTzj316_1153(mleS)
LPSLPST_C0897(mleS)
LPRLBP_cg0885
LPZLp16_0898
LPBSH83_04640
LPXASU28_00685
LPGBB562_11730
LARGLPA65_04520
LRELreu_1532
LRFLAR_1441
LRUHMPREF0538_20658
LRTLRI_0433
LRRN134_08445
LFFLBFF_1737
LMULBLM1_05505
LORAYI71_10860
LVALV515_01475(maeA)
LFNLF145_01580
LPONLP475_07030(maeA)
LPASKZE55_08170
LNGBSQ50_03310 BSQ50_05415
LHWBSQ49_00010 BSQ49_01295
LMALLM596_00015 LM596_01515 LM596_12185
LSNLSA_02100(mleA)
LLEAYR59_01285
LFVLF543_06275(maeA)
LBHLbuc_2270
LBNLBUCD034_2368(mleS)
LPARFAM21731_01127
LCUPL11_004795
LKFDNL43_04480
LHILG8J22_02692(mleS)
LBRLVIS_2203
LBKLVISKB_2276
LKOABN16_05050
LZYLZ3411_1768
LSUAH3M12_05495
LJIELX58_03325
LSLLSL_1313
LSIHN6_01094
LSJLSJ_1303c
LAGLBEN83_08515
LACALAC1533_0047
LANIFAX13_07485
LMURCPS94_00975
LBTAYR52_00740
LCYLC20004_05215 LC20004_11665
LHOLOOC260_100930
LKUAPS55_03150
ABOMD7I45_00670
LPDAYR62_11485
LMAEFGL90_03855
PPEPEPE_1617
PPENT256_07955
PCEPECL_1506(mleA)
PDMADU72_0857
PACIA4V11_05510
PIOPI20285_00265
LROSLROSL1_0315
LGNABM34_02255
LHIJP39_05195
LCTBI355_1185
LALWBTM29_10500
LALILA20249_02175
LFMLF20184_07295
LZHD1B17_05485
LFTFG051_07015
CPABG6534_04450
LSALCA_0441(mleS)
LCVFBA2_02430
LGMLG542_07020
LBMDS830_05645
LHBD1010_15455(maeA)
LDXLH506_00370
OOEOEOE_1564
OENDSM07_03755
OSIDLJ48_02150
LMELEUM_1005
LCILCK_00751(mleS)
LKILKI_10035
LECLGMK_02380
LGSLEGAS_0941(mleS)
LGEC269_04640
LLFBCR17_00270
LGCA9176_06315
LSUA6B45_04785
LPSEFGL85_07985
WKOWKK_06580
WCBAO080_08520
WPACO680_03965
WCFC6P13_05485
WHEEFA59_00785
WDIH9L19_02380
WVRIE337_04420
EFCEFAU004_02124(mleA)
EFAUEFAU085_02153(mleA)
EFUHMPREF0351_12120(sfcA)
EFMM7W_884
EFTM395_03495
EHREHR_08090
ECASECBG_03055
EMUEMQU_2067(sfcA)
EDULIU_11430
EGAAL523_04115
ETHCK496_04985
EGVEGCR1_12540 EGCR1_14850
EAVEH197_02060
ESGEsVE80_04850(sfcA)
ELACI4Q40_03635
ECECNCTC12421_02474(mleA)
ERAFJ9537_00080 J9537_19975
VPIBW732_03600
GADK8O88_03345 K8O88_08470
CAESMB_G1614(malS) SMB_G1621(malS)
CAYCEA_G1604(malS) CEA_G1611
CSBCLSA_c28840(malS)
CBVU729_2458
CTYKCTK_C00760(malS)
CEUA7L45_00955
CFERD4Z93_07640
LUAD4A81_00020
MDVC5Q96_05385
EUUADJ67_03540
VNKVEIT17_18230
MMAXLCQ47_03895
SELTBCS37_00615
AFNAcfer_0014
AINAcin_1469(sfcA)
BDEBDP_1119
BDNBBDE_1071
BASTBAST_0549
BACTAB656_03155
PDOPSDT_0694
APVApar_1191
OLOADJ70_00725
TRMJO41_05735
FNCHMPREF0946_00683
FUSHMPREF0409_00925
FNEFSDG_00236
FPDCTM68_02315
FPEIC4N17_06815
LBALebu_1156
LEOAMK43_05115
LOTAXF11_01710
LHFJCM16775_1402
LSZJCM16776_1109
LHGJMUB5056_1202
LTEJMUB4039_1264
LWDJCM16777_1208(mleS)
LGOJCM16774_0712
PMZHMPREF0659_A5560
 » show all
Reference
1  [PMID:16345941]
  Authors
Lonvaud-Funel A, de Saad AM
  Title
Purification and Properties of a Malolactic Enzyme from a Strain of Leuconostoc mesenteroides Isolated from Grapes.
  Journal
Appl Environ Microbiol 43:357-61 (1982)
DOI:10.1128/AEM.43.2.357-361.1982
Reference
2  [PMID:6833282]
  Authors
Caspritz G, Radler F
  Title
Malolactic enzyme of Lactobacillus plantarum. Purification, properties, and distribution among bacteria.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 258:4907-10 (1983)
Reference
3  [PMID:2097345]
  Authors
Naouri P, Chagnaud P, Arnaud A, Galzy P
  Title
Purification and properties of a malolactic enzyme from Leuconostoc oenos ATCC 23278.
  Journal
J Basic Microbiol 30:577-85 (1990)
DOI:10.1002/jobm.3620300813
Reference
4  [PMID:23196745]
  Authors
Schumann C, Michlmayr H, Del Hierro AM, Kulbe KD, Jiranek V, Eder R, Nguyen TH
  Title
Malolactic enzyme from Oenococcus oeni: heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and biochemical characterization.
  Journal
Bioengineered 4:147-52 (2013)
DOI:10.4161/bioe.22988
  Sequence
Other DBs
ExplorEnz - The Enzyme Database: 4.1.1.101
IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature: 4.1.1.101
ExPASy - ENZYME nomenclature database: 4.1.1.101
BRENDA, the Enzyme Database: 4.1.1.101
LinkDB

KEGG   REACTION: R11074
Entry
R11074                      Reaction                               
Name
(S)-malate carboxy-lyase
Definition
(S)-Malate <=> (S)-Lactate + CO2
Equation
Reaction class
RC00282  C00149_C00186
Enzyme
Pathway
rn00620  Pyruvate metabolism
rn01100  Metabolic pathways
rn01120  Microbial metabolism in diverse environments
Orthology
K22212  malolactic enzyme [EC:4.1.1.101]
Other DBs
RHEA: 46279
LinkDB

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