Functional Hierarchies

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KEGG BRITE is a collection of manually created hierarchical text (htext) files capturing functional hierarchies of various biological objects, especially those represented as KEGG objects. In contrast to KEGG PATHWAY, which is limited to molecular interactions and reactions, KEGG BRITE incorporates many different types of relationships.

Some BRITE hierarchy files are computationally expanded, adding a hierarchy level or a tab-delimited column, by incorporating additional information. This is accomplished by the Join Brite operation of KEGG Mapper, which combines a BRITE hierarchy file (such as ATC drug classification) and a binary relation file (such as D number to target relationships extracted from KEGG DRUG).

Some other BRITE hierarchy files contain tab-delimited attributes that are manually added. Recently introduced BRITE table files are essentailly the same as such multi-column BRITE hierarchy files. Because the table representation is often easier to understand, certain hierarchy files for disease and drug information have been converted to table files.

Brite Mapping

KEGG BRITE mapping is the process to map molecular datasets, especially large-scale datasets in genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, to the BRITE functional hierarchies for biological interpretation of higher-level systemic functions.

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green Pathways and Ontologies
KEGG pathway maps
BRITE hierarchy files
BRITE table files
red Genes and Proteins

Orthologs and modules
KEGG Orthology (KO) (K numbers)
KEGG modules (M/K numbers)
KEGG reaction modules
Protein families (K numbers)
Protein kinases
Protein phosphatases
LPS biosynthesis proteins
Peptidoglycan biosynthesis proteins New!
Lipid biosynthesis proteins
Polyketide biosynthesis proteins
Amino acid related enzymes
Cytochrome P450
Photosynthesis proteins
Transcription factors
Transcription machinery
Messenger RNA biogenesis
Ribosome biogenesis
Transfer RNA biogenesis
Translation factors
Chaperones and folding catalysts
Membrane trafficking
Ubiquitin system
DNA replication proteins
DNA repair and recombination proteins
Mitochondrial biogenesis
Secretion system
Bacterial toxins
Two-component system
Bacterial motility proteins
Cytoskeleton proteins
Prokaryotic defense system
G protein-coupled receptors
Enzyme-linked receptors
Cytokine receptors
Nuclear receptors
Ion channels
GTP-binding proteins
CAMs and their ligands
CD molecules
Glycosaminoglycan binding proteins
GPI-anchored proteins
Antimicrobial resistance genes
RNA family (K numbers)
Non-coding RNAs
Annotation guide
Enzymes of 2-oxoacid metabolism (table)
Dioxygenases (table)
Ribosomal proteins (table)
RNA polymerases (table)
Photo/chemosynthetic capacities (table)
Signaling modules (table)
See: KEGG Annotation
blue Compounds and Reactions

Compounds (C numbers)
Compounds with biological roles
Phytochemical compounds
Bioactive peptides
Endocrine disrupting compounds
Natural toxins
Target-based classification of compouonds
Reactions (R/RC numbers)
Enzymatic reactions
IUBMB reaction hierarchy
Reaction class
Glycosyltransferase reactions
purple Drugs

Drug classifications (D/C numbers)
ATC classification   [+ target]
USP drug classification
Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan
Classification of Japanese OTC drugs
Risk category of Japanese OTC drugs
Pharmaceutical additives in Japan
Target-based classification of drugs
Cytochrome P450 interactions
Antineoplastics (table)
See: KEGG DRUG for other drug classes
Other drug information (D/E/C numbers)
New drug approvals (table)
Pharmacogenomic biomarkers (table)
Rx-to-OTC switch list in Japan (table)
Rx-to-OTC switch list in USA (table)
Drug listed in Japanese Pharmacopoeia
Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan
Crude drugs
Essential oils
Medicinal herbs
Major components of natural products
Phytochemicals used as drugs
Animal drugs in Japan
purple Diseases

Human diseases (H numbers)
Human diseases   [+ gene]
Infectious diseases   [+ genome]
Human diseases in ICD-10 classification
Disease genes and markers
Cancer stages
Tumor markers (table)
Cancer-associated carbohydrates (table)
Carbohydrates in infections (table)
Drug resistance
AMR: KEGG signatures (table)
AMR: KEGG organisms (table)
AMR: beta-Lactamases (table)
See: KEGG Pathogen for other genes
red Organisms and Cells

KEGG organisms   [+ keywords]
KEGG organisms in NCBI taxonomy
KEGG viruses in NCBI taxonomy
Animal classification
Plant classification
Photosynthetic organisms
Plant pathogens
Cells, tissues, and organs
Human organ systems
Human cells

Binary Relationships

The following binary relation files may be used in the KEGG Mapper tool Join Brite to computationally extend the Brite hierarchy file.
K number to:    EC number    Reaction    GO    COG    TC    CAZy
D number to:    Target    Enzyme    Transporter    Marker    Map number   
H number to:    Human gene    Pathogen genome   
KEGG organism code to:    Keywords   

Codes and Abbreviations

Last updated: April 3, 2017
KEGG GenomeNet Kanehisa Laboratories