KEGG   ENZYME: 1.14.14.16
Entry
EC 1.14.14.16               Enzyme                                 
Name
steroid 21-monooxygenase;
steroid 21-hydroxylase;
21-hydroxylase;
P450c21;
CYP21A2 (gene name)
Class
Oxidoreductases;
Acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen;
With reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen into the other donor
Sysname
steroid,NADPH---hemoprotein reductase:oxygen oxidoreductase (21-hydroxylating)
Reaction(IUBMB)
a C21 steroid + [reduced NADPH---hemoprotein reductase] + O2 = a 21-hydroxy-C21-steroid + [oxidized NADPH---hemoprotein reductase] + H2O [RN:R02130]
Reaction(KEGG)
Substrate
C21 steroid;
[reduced NADPH---hemoprotein reductase] [CPD:C03024];
O2 [CPD:C00007]
Product
21-hydroxy-C21-steroid;
[oxidized NADPH---hemoprotein reductase] [CPD:C03161];
H2O [CPD:C00001]
Comment
A P-450 heme-thiolate protein responsible for the conversion of progesterone and 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone to their respective 21-hydroxylated derivatives, 11-deoxycorticosterone and 11-deoxycortisol. Involved in the biosynthesis of the hormones aldosterone and cortisol. The electron donor is EC 1.6.2.4, NADPH---hemoprotein reductase.
History
EC 1.14.14.16 created 1961 as EC 1.99.1.11, transferred 1965 to EC 1.14.1.8, transferred 1972 to EC 1.14.99.10, modified 2013, transferred 2015 to EC 1.14.14.16
Pathway
ec00140  Steroid hormone biosynthesis
ec01100  Metabolic pathways
Orthology
K00513  steroid 21-monooxygenase
Genes
HSA1589(CYP21A2)
PTR745345
PPS117980568 117980569
GGO101147473 109023079
PON100461354 112133772
PPYG129039434 129039439
NLE100579180
HMH116460301
SSYN129473274
MCC717020(CYP21A2)
MCF102130610(CYP21A2)
MTHB126953219
MNI105497657
CSAB103221724(CYP21A2)
CATY105574106
PANU101025297
TGE112622250
MLEU105531512 105554208
RRO104674109
RBB108519899
TFN117086985
PTEH111526288
CANG105513772
CJC100395918(CYP21A2)
SBQ101047673
CIMI108299804(CYP21A2)
ANAN105706379(CYP21A2)
CSYR103271305
MMUR105858145
LCAT123631769
PCOQ105817863
OGA100963190
MMU13079(Cyp21a1)
MCAL110312588
MPAH110335614
RNO24298(Cyp21a1)
MCOC116074685
ANU117724586
MUN110560117
CGE100767691
MAUA101840777
PROB127224309
PLEU114705894
MORG121435338
MFOT126495192
AAMP119822479
NGI103724459
HGL101717066
CPOC100727788
CCAN109689568
DORD105999853
DSP122111110
PLOP125352748
NCAR124988309
MMMA107143752
OCU100342636 127488899
OPI101536144
TUP102491327
GVR103592340
CFA415124(CYP21A2)
CLUD112641338
VVP112913634
VLG121500818
NPO129513000
AML100478117
UMR103682334
UAH113243763
UAR123791062
ELK111152239
LLV125101525
MPUF101689319
MNP132017829
MLK131834328
NVS122911378
ORO101381142
EJU114222188
ZCA113926301
MLX118027311
NSU110586781
LWW102737081
FCA101094596(CYP21A2)
PYU121022330
PCOO112853724
PBG122478273
PVIV125166105
LRUF124528377
PTG102966729
PPAD109260501
PUC125938415
AJU106983476
HHV120221929
BTA281741(CYP21A2)
BOM102267885
BIU109576856
BBUB102394885
BBIS105005314
CHX102174710
OAS105612707 114108679
BTAX128056435
ODA120870583
CCAD122429310
MBEZ129543843
SSC403337(CYP21A2)
CFR102506530
CBAI105074032
CDK105087514
VPC102526337
BACU103003841
BMUS118903580
LVE103069558
OOR101278959
DLE111170705
PCAD102985160
PSIU116762931
NASI112395389
ECB100059277
EPZ103563302
EAI106831008
MYB102254156
MMYO118679567
PKL118705357
EFUS103300519
MNA107538945
DRO112302380
SHON118979545
AJM119053733
PDIC114494161
PHAS123810467
MMF118621110
PPAM129067338
HAI109373090
RFQ117016499
PALE102898380
PGIG120618892
PVP105305287
RAY107498441
MJV108393999
TOD119252239
SARA101550385
SETR125995792
LAV100658069
TMU101359524
ETF101645438
DNM101424397
MDO100025565
GAS123245160
SHR100932451
AFZ127561099
PCW110199314
TVP118857989
OAA100086194
GGA429828(CYP21A1)
PCOC116236742
MGP100538455
CJO107321560
TPAI128074275
LMUT125686259
NMEL110406665
APLA101794100
ACYG106049851
CATA118260326
TGU116807644
LSR110478274
SCAN103822718
PMOA120505792
OTC121346758
PRUF121359571
GFR102042267
FAB101816789
OMA130261952
PHI102108296
PMAJ107213983
CCAE111938931
CCW104683162
CBRC103620364
ETL114070275
ZAB102061240
ZLE135457000
SVG106862383
MMEA130588046
HRT120764093
EGZ104133716
ACHC115338476
AGEN126034835
SHAB115602492
RTD128901607
DNE112981956
ASN112548178
AMJ102575314(CYP21A2)
CCAY125621398
DCC119842680
CPIC101950331
CABI116839812
MRV120392330
ACS100552382
ASAO132765958
PVT110090188
SUND121921953
PBI103054275
PMUR107293207
CTIG120305101
PGUT117663177
APRI131190360
PTEX113450767
VKO123017801
PMUA114592264
PRAF128409040
HCG128343084
GJA107107307
STOW125427682
EMC129329403
XLA447267(cyp21a2.1.L)
XTR100489813(cyp21a2.1)
NPR108786530
RTEM120913238
BBUF120978198
BGAR122919724
MUO115459441 115466193
GSH117346866
DRE793249(cyp21a2)
SRX107743211
SANH107685595
SGH107596711
CCAR109104569
CAUA113116301
CGIB127974821 128030216
PTET122360829
LROH127177984
OMC131521886
PPRM120481323
RKG130070171
MAMB125243568
CIDE127496722
MASI127454347
TROS130558128
TDW130433106
MANU129448261
IPU108261472
IFU128609054
PHYP113542548
SMEO124383928
TFD113644742
TVC132845335
TRN134310247
AMEX103037969
CMAO118825719
EEE113570604
CHAR105910687
TRU101065814
TFS130532665
LCO104922752
NCC104966285
TBEN117480591
CGOB115021585
PGEO117460461
GACU117554060
EMAC134861650
ELY117266380
EFO125893254
PLEP121946285
SLUC116049375
ECRA117945986
ESP116691024
PFLV114557620
GAT120811016
PPUG119197193
AFB129110074
CLUM117745517
PSWI130213154
MSAM119897775
SCHU122881406
CUD121513960
ALAT119006010
MZE101472385
ONL100703376
OAU116319787
OLA101157155
OML112143388
CSAI133440966
XMA102218645
XCO114140790
XHE116716989
PRET103478543
PFOR103143072 103150410
PLAI106942625 106942766
PMEI106904293 106911572
GAF122831408
PPRL129371298
CVG107102538
CTUL119772817
GMU124865981
NFU107372377
ALIM106517731
NWH119410123
AOCE111588846
MCEP125016505
CSEM103388483
POV109633161
SSEN122775239
HHIP117776698
HSP118114203
PPLT128448907
SMAU118316510
LCF108885898
SDU111238796
SLAL111668816
XGL120784356
HCQ109517589
SSCV125975605
SBIA133500933
PEE133402194
PTAO133480011
BPEC110171734
MALB109971672
BSPL114842467
SJO128366354
SASA106606086
STRU115177506 115185950
OTW112225325 112243760
OMY110520728 110535199
OGO124022774 124022776
OKI109900152 116365614
OKE118377982
SALP112079040
SNH120036659
CCLU121555558 121585713
ELS105018837
SFM108927404
PKI111839059
AANG118231182
PSPA121299051
ARUT117433933 117964830
LCM102346130
RTP109925585
CPLA122541551
HOC132832950
LERI129715729
PMRN116945069 116953183
LRJ133341661 133354699
 » show all
Reference
1  [PMID:14934270]
  Authors
DORFMAN RI, HAYANO M.
  Title
The action of adrenal homogenates on progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone and 21-desoxycortisone.
  Journal
Arch Biochem 36:237-9 (1952)
DOI:10.1016/0003-9861(52)90397-4
Reference
2  [PMID:13031650]
  Authors
PLAGER JE, SAMUELS LT.
  Title
Synthesis of C14-17-hydroxy-11-desoxycorticosterone and 17-hydroxycorticosterone by fractionated extracts of adrenal homogenates.
  Journal
Arch Biochem Biophys 42:477-8 (1953)
DOI:10.1016/0003-9861(53)90378-6
Reference
3  [PMID:13416221]
  Authors
RYAN KJ, ENGEL LL.
  Title
Hydroxylation of steroids at carbon 21.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 225:103-14 (1957)
Reference
4  [PMID:6767716]
  Authors
Kominami S, Ochi H, Kobayashi Y, Takemori S
  Title
Studies on the steroid hydroxylation system in adrenal cortex microsomes. Purification and characterization of cytochrome P-450 specific for steroid C-21 hydroxylation.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 255:3386-94 (1980)
Reference
5  [PMID:14568563]
  Authors
Martineau I, Belanger A, Tchernof A, Tremblay Y
  Title
Molecular cloning and expression of guinea pig cytochrome P450c21 cDNA (steroid 21-hydroxylase) isolated from the adrenals.
  Journal
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 86:123-32 (2003)
DOI:10.1016/S0960-0760(03)00261-9
Reference
6  [PMID:16597434]
  Authors
Arase M, Waterman MR, Kagawa N
  Title
Purification and characterization of bovine steroid 21-hydroxylase (P450c21) efficiently expressed in Escherichia coli.
  Journal
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 344:400-5 (2006)
DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2006.03.067
  Sequence
[bta:281741]
Other DBs
ExplorEnz - The Enzyme Database: 1.14.14.16
IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature: 1.14.14.16
ExPASy - ENZYME nomenclature database: 1.14.14.16
BRENDA, the Enzyme Database: 1.14.14.16
CAS: 9029-68-9
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