KEGG   DISEASE: Long QT syndrome
H00720                      Disease                                
Long QT syndrome
Romano-Ward syndrome
Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome (JLNS) [DS:H02091]
Timothy syndrome
Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a cardiovascular disorder resulting from mutations in cardiac ion channels. LQTS is characterized by prolongation of the QT interval in the electrocardiogram (ECG) and a propensity to torsades de pointes ventricular tachycardia frequently leading to syncope, cardiac arrest, or sudden death usually in young otherwise healthy individuals. Anesthesia in a patient with LQTS can trigger malignant arrhythmias and is therefore a high-risk procedure. There are two well-known syndromes with a long QT interval. The Romano-Ward syndrome is characterized by an autosomal-dominant inheritance without familial deafness. The Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome (JLNS) has an autosomal-recessive pattern of inheritance and is associated with deafness.
Cardiovascular disease
Human diseases [BR:br08402]
 Cardiovascular diseases
  Cardiac diseases
   H00720  Long QT syndrome
Human diseases in ICD-11 classification [BR:br08403]
 11 Diseases of the circulatory system
  Cardiac arrhythmia
   BC65  Cardiac arrhythmia associated with genetic disorder
    H00720  Long QT syndrome
hsa04261  Adrenergic signaling in cardiomyocytes
hsa04921  Oxytocin signaling pathway
hsa04924  Renin secretion
hsa04925  Aldosterone synthesis and secretion
hsa04713  Circadian entrainment
hsa04728  Dopaminergic synapse
(LQT1) KCNQ1 [HSA:3784] [KO:K04926]
(LQT2) KCNH2 [HSA:3757] [KO:K04905]
(LQT3) SCN5A [HSA:6331] [KO:K04838]
(LQT4) ANK2 [HSA:287] [KO:K10380]
(LQT5) KCNE1 [HSA:3753] [KO:K04894]
(LQT6) KCNE2 [HSA:9992] [KO:K04896]
(LQT7) KCNJ2 [HSA:3759] [KO:K04996]
(LQT8) CACNA1C [HSA:775] [KO:K04850]
(LQT9) CAV3 [HSA:859] [KO:K12959]
(LQT10) SCN4B [HSA:6330] [KO:K04848]
(LQT11) AKAP9 [HSA:10142] [KO:K16551]
(LQT12) SNTA1 [HSA:6640] [KO:K24063]
(LQT13) KCNJ5 [HSA:3762] [KO:K04999]
(LQT14) CALM1 [HSA:801] [KO:K02183]
(LQT15) CALM2 [HSA:805] [KO:K02183]
(LQT16) CALM3 [HSA:808] [KO:K02183]
Env factor
Sevoflurane [CPD:C07520]
Isoflurane [CPD:C07518]
Desflurane [CPD:C07519]
Other DBs
ICD-11: BC65.0
ICD-10: I45.81
OMIM: 192500 613688 603830 600919 613695 613693 170390 618447 601005 611818 611819 611820 612955 613485 220400 616247 616249 612347 618782
Kim HT, Lee JH, Park IB, Heo HE, Kim TY, Lee MJ
Long QT syndrome provoked by induction of general anesthesia -A case report-.
Korean J Anesthesiol 59 Suppl:S114-8 (2010)
Zareba W, Cygankiewicz I
Long QT syndrome and short QT syndrome.
Prog Cardiovasc Dis 51:264-78 (2008)
PMID:17498019 (environmental factor)
Aypar E, Karagoz AH, Ozer S, Celiker A, Ocal T
The effects of sevoflurane and desflurane anesthesia on QTc interval and cardiac rhythm in children.
Paediatr Anaesth 17:563-7 (2007)
Saussine M, Massad I, Raczka F, Davy JM, Frapier JM
Torsade de pointes during sevoflurane anesthesia in a child with congenital long QT syndrome.
Paediatr Anaesth 16:63-5 (2006)
Ilhan A, Tuncer C, Komsuoglu SS, Kali S
Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome: neurologic and cardiologic evaluation.
Pediatr Neurol 21:809-13 (1999)
Crotti L, Johnson CN, Graf E, De Ferrari GM, Cuneo BF, Ovadia M, Papagiannis J, Feldkamp MD, Rathi SG, Kunic JD, Pedrazzini M, Wieland T, Lichtner P, Beckmann BM, Clark T, Shaffer C, Benson DW, Kaab S, Meitinger T, Strom TM, Chazin WJ, Schwartz PJ, George AL Jr
Calmodulin mutations associated with recurrent cardiac arrest in infants.
Circulation 127:1009-17 (2013)
Boczek NJ, Gomez-Hurtado N, Ye D, Calvert ML, Tester DJ, Kryshtal D, Hwang HS, Johnson CN, Chazin WJ, Loporcaro CG, Shah M, Papez AL, Lau YR, Kanter R, Knollmann BC, Ackerman MJ
Spectrum and Prevalence of CALM1-, CALM2-, and CALM3-Encoded Calmodulin Variants in Long QT Syndrome and Functional Characterization of a Novel Long QT Syndrome-Associated Calmodulin Missense Variant, E141G.
Circ Cardiovasc Genet 9:136-146 (2016)

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