KEGG   PATHWAY: ko00572
Entry
ko00572                     Pathway                                
Name
Arabinogalactan biosynthesis - Mycobacterium
Description
Just like lipoarabinomannan (map00571), arabinogalactan (AG) is a major heteropolysaccharide found on the mycobacterium cell wall. AG consists of a linear galactan chain of galactofuranosyl (Galf) residues covalently connected to peptidoglycan (PG), with branches of three similar arabinan chains comprising arabinofuranosyl (Araf) residues. The non-reducing ends of arabinans are often covalently attached to the long fatty acids of mycolic acids. Thus, the covalently linked network of PG and mycolylated AG, termed the mycolyl-arabinogalactan-peptidoglycan (mAGP) complex, forms an exceptionally robust cell wall and provides a permeability barrier to antibiotics.
Class
Metabolism; Glycan biosynthesis and metabolism
Pathway map
ko00572  Arabinogalactan biosynthesis - Mycobacterium
ko00572

Orthology
K02851  UDP-GlcNAc:undecaprenyl-phosphate/decaprenyl-phosphate GlcNAc-1-phosphate transferase [EC:2.7.8.33 2.7.8.35]
K16870  N-acetylglucosaminyl-diphospho-decaprenol L-rhamnosyltransferase [EC:2.4.1.289]
K16649  rhamnopyranosyl-N-acetylglucosaminyl-diphospho-decaprenol beta-1,3/1,4-galactofuranosyltransferase [EC:2.4.1.287]
K16650  galactofuranosylgalactofuranosylrhamnosyl-N-acetylglucosaminyl-diphospho-decaprenol beta-1,5/1,6-galactofuranosyltransferase [EC:2.4.1.288]
K13686  galactan 5-O-arabinofuranosyltransferase [EC:2.4.2.46]
K13687  arabinofuranosyltransferase [EC:2.4.2.-]
K16647  arabinofuranan 3-O-arabinosyltransferase [EC:2.4.2.47]
K11385  arabinosyltransferase A [EC:2.4.2.-]
K11386  arabinosyltransferase B [EC:2.4.2.-]
K16648  arabinofuranan 3-O-arabinosyltransferase [EC:2.4.2.-]
K18851  diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase / trehalose O-mycolyltransferase [EC:2.3.1.20 2.3.1.122]
K22902  D-galactosaminyltransferase
Compound
C00569  Arabinogalactan
C02970  Decaprenol phosphate
C03319  dTDP-L-rhamnose
C05896  Crosslinked peptidoglycan
C21904  Mycobacterial trehalose monomycolate
G10610  UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine
G13118  GlcNAc-pyrophosphoryldecaprenol
G13119  Rhamnosyl-N-acetyl-glucosaminyl-decaprenyl diphosphate
G13120  Glycolipid 3
G13121  Glycolipid 4
G13122  Glycolipid 5
G13123  C50-P-P-GlcNAc-Rha-linked galactan polymer
G13124   
G13125  UDP-alpha-D-galactofuranose
Reference
  Authors
Jankute M, Grover S, Birch HL, Besra GS
  Title
Genetics of Mycobacterial Arabinogalactan and Lipoarabinomannan Assembly.
  Journal
Microbiol Spectr 2:MGM2-0013-2013 (2014)
DOI:10.1128/microbiolspec.MGM2-0013-2013
Reference
  Authors
Jankute M, Cox JA, Harrison J, Besra GS
  Title
Assembly of the Mycobacterial Cell Wall.
  Journal
Annu Rev Microbiol 69:405-23 (2015)
DOI:10.1146/annurev-micro-091014-104121
Reference
  Authors
Angala SK, Belardinelli JM, Huc-Claustre E, Wheat WH, Jackson M
  Title
The cell envelope glycoconjugates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
  Journal
Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 49:361-99 (2014)
DOI:10.3109/10409238.2014.925420
Reference
  Authors
Birch HL, Alderwick LJ, Bhatt A, Rittmann D, Krumbach K, Singh A, Bai Y, Lowary TL, Eggeling L, Besra GS
  Title
Biosynthesis of mycobacterial arabinogalactan: identification of a novel alpha(1-->3) arabinofuranosyltransferase.
  Journal
Mol Microbiol 69:1191-206 (2008)
DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2958.2008.06354.x
Reference
  Authors
Belanova M, Dianiskova P, Brennan PJ, Completo GC, Rose NL, Lowary TL, Mikusova K
  Title
Galactosyl transferases in mycobacterial cell wall synthesis.
  Journal
J Bacteriol 190:1141-5 (2008)
DOI:10.1128/JB.01326-07
Reference
  Authors
Alderwick LJ, Seidel M, Sahm H, Besra GS, Eggeling L
  Title
Identification of a novel arabinofuranosyltransferase (AftA) involved in cell wall arabinan biosynthesis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 281:15653-61 (2006)
DOI:10.1074/jbc.M600045200
Reference
PMID:1906464
  Authors
McNeil M, Daffe M, Brennan PJ
  Title
Location of the mycolyl ester substituents in the cell walls of mycobacteria.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 266:13217-23 (1991)
Reference
  Authors
Grzegorzewicz AE, de Sousa-d'Auria C, McNeil MR, Huc-Claustre E, Jones V, Petit C, Angala SK, Zemanova J, Wang Q, Belardinelli JM, Gao Q, Ishizaki Y, Mikusova K, Brennan PJ, Ronning DR, Chami M, Houssin C, Jackson M
  Title
Assembling of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Cell Wall Core.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 291:18867-79 (2016)
DOI:10.1074/jbc.M116.739227
Reference
  Authors
Bhamidi S, Scherman MS, Jones V, Crick DC, Belisle JT, Brennan PJ, McNeil MR
  Title
Detailed structural and quantitative analysis reveals the spatial organization of the cell walls of in vivo grown Mycobacterium leprae and in vitro grown Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 286:23168-77 (2011)
DOI:10.1074/jbc.M110.210534
Related
pathway
ko00520  Amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism
ko00523  Polyketide sugar unit biosynthesis
ko00550  Peptidoglycan biosynthesis
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