KEGG   DISEASE: Myocardial infarction
Entry
H01730                      Disease                                
Name
Myocardial infarction
Description
Myocardial infarction (MI) or acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a term for an event of heart attack. It is due to formation of plaques in the interior walls of the arteries resulting in reduced blood flow to the heart and injuring heart muscles because of lack of oxygen supply. The symptoms of MI include chest pain, which travels from left arm to neck, shortness of breath, nausea, epigastric discomfort, syncope, diaphoresis, and other factors. The diagnosis of MI is dependent on the sensitivity and specificity of the clinical criteria, electrocardiographic (ECG) findings, imaging studies and biomarkers used to detect death of cardiomyocytes. The treatment of MI includes, aspirin tablets, and to dissolve arterial blockage injection of thrombolytic or clot dissolving drugs such as tissue plasminogen activator, streptokinase or urokinase in blood within 3 h of the onset of a heart attack. Nitroglycerin and antihypertensive drugs such as beta-blockers and ACE inhibitors may also be used to lower blood pressure and to improve the oxygen demand of heart.
Category
Cardiovascular disease
Brite
Human diseases [BR:br08402]
 Cardiovascular diseases
  Cardiac diseases
   H01730  Myocardial infarction
Human diseases in ICD-11 classification [BR:br08403]
 11 Diseases of the circulatory system
  Ischaemic heart diseases
   Acute ischaemic heart disease
    BA41  Acute myocardial infarction
     H01730  Myocardial infarction
Gene
ESR1 [HSA:2099] [KO:K08550]
F13A1 [HSA:2162] [KO:K03917]
F7 [HSA:2155] [KO:K01320]
GCLC [HSA:2729] [KO:K11204]
GCLM [HSA:2730] [KO:K11205]
ITGB3 [HSA:3690] [KO:K06493]
LRP8 [HSA:7804] [KO:K20052]
LTA [HSA:4049] [KO:K05468]
OLR1 [HSA:4973] [KO:K08763]
PSMA6 [HSA:5687] [KO:K02730]
TNFSF4 [HSA:7292] [KO:K05469]
Drug
Aspirin [DR:D00109]
Clopidogrel bisulfate [DR:D00769]
Prasugrel hydrochloride [DR:D05597]
Ticagrelor [DR:D09017]
Cangrelor tetrasodium [DR:D03361]
Vorapaxar sulfate [DR:D09766]
Reteplase [DR:D05721]
Norepinephrine bitartrate [DR:D05206]
Dopamine hydrochloride [DR:D00633]
Nitroglycerin [DR:D00515]
Niacin [DR:D00049]
Propranolol hydrochloride [DR:D00483]
Metoprolol tartrate [DR:D00601]
Atenolol [DR:D00235]
Lovastatin [DR:D00359]
Atorvastatin calcium [DR:D02258]
Alirocumab [DR:D10335]
Other DBs
ICD-11: BA41
ICD-10: I21
MeSH: D009203
OMIM: 608446
Reference
  Authors
Lu L, Liu M, Sun R, Zheng Y, Zhang P
  Title
Myocardial Infarction: Symptoms and Treatments.
  Journal
Cell Biochem Biophys 72:865-7 (2015)
DOI:10.1007/s12013-015-0553-4
Reference
  Authors
Thygesen K, Alpert JS, Jaffe AS, Simoons ML, Chaitman BR, White HD
  Title
Third universal definition of myocardial infarction.
  Journal
Nat Rev Cardiol 9:620-33 (2012)
DOI:10.1038/nrcardio.2012.122
Reference
  Authors
Frangogiannis NG
  Title
Pathophysiology of Myocardial Infarction.
  Journal
Compr Physiol 5:1841-75 (2015)
DOI:10.1002/cphy.c150006
Reference
PMID:22061094 (ESR1)
  Authors
Puzianowska-Kuznicka M
  Title
ESR1 in myocardial infarction.
  Journal
Clin Chim Acta 413:81-7 (2012)
DOI:10.1016/j.cca.2011.10.028
Reference
PMID:30972713 (F13A1)
  Authors
Ambroziak M, Kurylowicz A, Budaj A
  Title
Increased coagulation factor XIII activity but not genetic variants of coagulation factors is associated with myocardial infarction in young patients.
  Journal
J Thromb Thrombolysis 48:519-527 (2019)
DOI:10.1007/s11239-019-01856-3
Reference
PMID:10984565 (F7)
  Authors
Girelli D, Russo C, Ferraresi P, Olivieri O, Pinotti M, Friso S, Manzato F, Mazzucco A, Bernardi F, Corrocher R
  Title
Polymorphisms in the factor VII gene and the risk of myocardial infarction in patients with coronary artery disease.
  Journal
N Engl J Med 343:774-80 (2000)
DOI:10.1056/NEJM200009143431104
Reference
PMID:12598062 (GCLC)
  Authors
Koide S, Kugiyama K, Sugiyama S, Nakamura S, Fukushima H, Honda O, Yoshimura M, Ogawa H
  Title
Association of polymorphism in glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit gene with coronary vasomotor dysfunction and myocardial infarction.
  Journal
J Am Coll Cardiol 41:539-45 (2003)
DOI:10.1016/s0735-1097(02)02866-8
Reference
PMID:12081989 (GCLM)
  Authors
Nakamura S, Kugiyama K, Sugiyama S, Miyamoto S, Koide S, Fukushima H, Honda O, Yoshimura M, Ogawa H
  Title
Polymorphism in the 5'-flanking region of human glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit gene is associated with myocardial infarction.
  Journal
Circulation 105:2968-73 (2002)
DOI:10.1161/01.cir.0000019739.66514.1e
Reference
PMID:31457051 (ITGB3)
  Authors
Sheikhvatan M, Boroumand MA, Behmanesh M, Ziaee S, Cheraghee S
  Title
Integrin Beta-3 Gene Polymorphism and Risk for Myocardial Infarction in Premature Coronary Disease.
  Journal
Iran J Biotechnol 17:e1921 (2019)
DOI:10.21859/ijb.1921
Reference
PMID:34122585 (LRP8)
  Authors
Ghorbani MJ, Razmi N, Tabei SMB, Zibaeenezhad MJ, Goodarzi HR
  Title
A substitution mutation in LRP8 gene is significantly associated with susceptibility to familial myocardial infarction.
  Journal
ARYA Atheroscler 16:301-305 (2020)
DOI:10.22122/arya.v16i6.1797
Reference
PMID:12426569 (LTA)
  Authors
Ozaki K, Ohnishi Y, Iida A, Sekine A, Yamada R, Tsunoda T, Sato H, Sato H, Hori M, Nakamura Y, Tanaka T
  Title
Functional SNPs in the lymphotoxin-alpha gene that are associated with susceptibility to myocardial infarction.
  Journal
Nat Genet 32:650-4 (2002)
DOI:10.1038/ng1047
Reference
PMID:12646194 (OLR1)
  Authors
Tatsuguchi M, Furutani M, Hinagata J, Tanaka T, Furutani Y, Imamura S, Kawana M, Masaki T, Kasanuki H, Sawamura T, Matsuoka R
  Title
Oxidized LDL receptor gene (OLR1) is associated with the risk of myocardial infarction.
  Journal
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 303:247-50 (2003)
DOI:10.1016/s0006-291x(03)00326-7
Reference
PMID:16845397 (PSMA6)
  Authors
Ozaki K, Sato H, Iida A, Mizuno H, Nakamura T, Miyamoto Y, Takahashi A, Tsunoda T, Ikegawa S, Kamatani N, Hori M, Nakamura Y, Tanaka T
  Title
A functional SNP in PSMA6 confers risk of myocardial infarction in the Japanese population.
  Journal
Nat Genet 38:921-5 (2006)
DOI:10.1038/ng1846
Reference
PMID:15750594 (TNFSF4)
  Authors
Wang X, Ria M, Kelmenson PM, Eriksson P, Higgins DC, Samnegard A, Petros C, Rollins J, Bennet AM, Wiman B, de Faire U, Wennberg C, Olsson PG, Ishii N, Sugamura K, Hamsten A, Forsman-Semb K, Lagercrantz J, Paigen B
  Title
Positional identification of TNFSF4, encoding OX40 ligand, as a gene that influences atherosclerosis susceptibility.
  Journal
Nat Genet 37:365-72 (2005)
DOI:10.1038/ng1524
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