KEGG   DISEASE: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
H01714                      Disease                                
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD);
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a representative chronic inflammatory disorder of the lungs that includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema. COPD is characterized by airway inflammation and progressive airflow obstruction, most commonly caused by cigarette smoking. The major symptoms of which patients complain are cough, breathlessness, and sputum production. COPD is associated with underlying inflammation in response to chronic exposure to noxious particulates and gases and with a number of comorbid conditions. The onset of COPD generally occurs in the 6th to 8th decades of life. Early onset COPD is defined as disease onset before the age of 50 years, irrespective of smoking history. The presence of persons with early onset, severely reduced pulmonary function suggests that individuals may vary in their genetic susceptibility to the effects of smoking. Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency is the only proven genetic risk factor for COPD. Bronchodilators are the mainstay of treatment since they improve lung function and reduce acute exacerbations. Long-acting inhaled bronchodilators are recommended as first line treatment for patients with persistent symptoms.
Respiratory system disease
Human diseases in ICD-11 classification [BR:br08403]
 12 Diseases of the respiratory system
  Certain lower respiratory tract diseases
   CA22  Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    H01714  Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
Pathway-based classification of diseases [BR:br08402]
 Innate immunity
  nt06514  Coagulation cascade
   H01714  Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
SERPINA1 [HSA:5265] [KO:K03984]
HMOX1 [HSA:3162] [KO:K00510]
MMP1 [HSA:4312] [KO:K01388]
Prednisolone sodium phosphate [DR:D00981]
Glycopyrrolate [DR:D00540]
Prednisone [DR:D00473]
Salmeterol xinafoate and fluticasone propionate [DR:D08699]
Ipratropium bromide [DR:D02212]
Metaproterenol sulfate [DR:D00685]
Terbutaline sulfate [DR:D00688]
Salmeterol xinafoate [DR:D00687]
Formoterol fumarate [DR:D01373]
Formoterol fumarate hydrate [DR:D05277]
Indacaterol maleate [DR:D09319]
Olodaterol hydrochloride [DR:D10020]
Budesonide and formoterol fumarate dihydrate [DR:D09595]
Fluticasone furoate and vilanterol trifenatate [DR:D10501]
Albuterol sulfate and ipratropium bromide [DR:D10256]
Umeclidinium bromide and vilanterol [DR:D10533]
Glycopyrronium bromide and indacaterol maleate [DR:D10505]
Aclidinium bromide and formoterol fumarate [DR:D11857]
Tiotropium and olodaterol [DR:D10744]
Glycopyrrolate and formoterol [DR:D11036]
Fluticasone furoate, umeclidinium bromide and vilanterol [DR:D11035]
Tiotropium bromide hydrate [DR:D01929]
Aclidinium bromide [DR:D08837]
Umeclidinium bromide [DR:D10181]
Revefenacin [DR:D10978]
Aminophylline hydrate [DR:D05429]
Aminophylline dihydrate [DR:D11630]
Theophylline and dextrose [DR:D10297]
Roflumilast [DR:D05744]
Acetylcysteine [DR:D00221]
Arformoterol tartrate [DR:D02981]
See also H01103 Alpha-1-antitrypsin (A1AT) deficiency
Other DBs
ICD-11: CA22
ICD-10: J43 J44
MeSH: D029424
OMIM: 606963
Smith J, Woodcock A
Cough and its importance in COPD.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 1:305-14 (2006)
Tsuchida T, Matsuse H, Nishino T, Kawano T, Fukushima C, Hayashi T, Kohno S
Pathologically confirmed, early-onset, severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Intern Med 51:3411-4 (2012)
Silverman EK, Chapman HA, Drazen JM, Weiss ST, Rosner B, Campbell EJ, O'DONNELL WJ, Reilly JJ, Ginns L, Mentzer S, Wain J, Speizer FE
Genetic epidemiology of severe, early-onset chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Risk to relatives for airflow obstruction and chronic bronchitis.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med 157:1770-8 (1998)
Yamada N, Yamaya M, Okinaga S, Nakayama K, Sekizawa K, Shibahara S, Sasaki H
Microsatellite polymorphism in the heme oxygenase-1 gene promoter is associated with susceptibility to emphysema.
Am J Hum Genet 66:187-95 (2000)
Joos L, He JQ, Shepherdson MB, Connett JE, Anthonisen NR, Pare PD, Sandford AJ
The role of matrix metalloproteinase polymorphisms in the rate of decline in lung function.
Hum Mol Genet 11:569-76 (2002)

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