KEGG   DISEASE: Gastric cancer
Entry
H00018                      Disease                                
Name
Gastric cancer
Description
Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the world's most common cancers. According to Lauren's histological classification gastric cancer is divided into two distinct histological groups - the intestinal and diffuse types. Several genetic changes have been identified in intestinal-type GC. The intestinal metaplasia is characterized by mutations in p53 gene, reduced expression of retinoic acid receptor beta (RAR-beta) and hTERT expression. Gastric adenomas furthermore display mutations in the APC gene, reduced p27 expression and cyclin E amplification. In addition, amplification and overexpression of c-ErbB2, reduced TGF-beta receptor type I (TGFBRI) expression and complete loss of p27 expression are commonly observed in more advanced GC. The main molecular changes observed in diffuse-type GCs include loss of E-cadherin function by mutations in CDH1and amplification of MET and FGFR2F.
Category
Cancer
Brite
Human diseases [BR:br08402]
 Cancers
  Cancers of the digestive system
   H00018  Gastric cancer
Human diseases in ICD-11 classification [BR:br08403]
 02 Neoplasms
  Malignant neoplasms, except primary neoplasms of lymphoid, haematopoietic, central nervous system or related tissues
   Malignant neoplasms, stated or presumed to be primary, of specified sites, except of lymphoid, haematopoietic, central nervous system or related tissues
    Malignant neoplasms of digestive organs
     2B72  Malignant neoplasms of stomach
      H00018  Gastric cancer
Tumor markers [br08442.html]
 H00018
Cancer-associated carbohydrates [br08441.html]
 H00018
Pathway
hsa05226  Gastric cancer
Network
nt06261  Gastric cancer
nt06504  Base excision repair
Gene
CDX2 (overexpression) [HSA:1045] [KO:K22234]
TERT (overexpression) [HSA:7015] [KO:K11126]
RARB (reduced expression) [HSA:5915] [KO:K08528]
CDKN1B (reduced expression) [HSA:1027] [KO:K06624]
TGFBR1 (reduced expression) [HSA:7046] [KO:K04674]
ERBB2 (amplification) [HSA:2064] [KO:K05083]
CCNE1 (amplification) [HSA:898] [KO:K06626]
MET (amplification) [HSA:4233] [KO:K05099]
FGFR2 (amplification) [HSA:2263] [KO:K05093]
MLH1 (methylation) [HSA:4292] [KO:K08734]
TP53 [HSA:7157] [KO:K04451]
APC [HSA:324] [KO:K02085]
CTNNB1 [HSA:1499] [KO:K02105]
KRAS [HSA:3845] [KO:K07827]
NRAS [HSA:4893] [KO:K07828]
CDH1 [HSA:999] [KO:K05689]
MUTYH [HSA:4595] [KO:K03575]
PIK3CA [HSA:5290] [KO:K00922]
Pathogen
Helicobacter pylori (infection with)
Drug
Floxuridine [DR:D04197]
Trifluridine and tipiracil hydrochloride [DR:D10526]
Docetaxel [DR:D07866]
Docetaxel [DR:D02165]
Doxorubicin hydrochloride [DR:D01275]
Mitomycin [DR:D00208]
Trastuzumab [DR:D03257] (HER2 overexpressing)
Nivolumab [DR:D10316]
Pembrolizumab [DR:D10574] (HER2 positive)
Ramucirumab [DR:D09371]
Other DBs
ICD-11: 2B72.0
ICD-10: C16
MeSH: D013274
OMIM: 613659
Reference
PMID:11315254 (ERBB2, MET, FGFR2, TP53, APC, CTNNB1, KRAS, CDH1)
  Authors
Werner M, Becker KF, Keller G, Hofler H.
  Title
Gastric adenocarcinoma: pathomorphology and molecular pathology.
  Journal
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 127:207-16 (2001)
DOI:10.1007/s004320000195
Reference
PMID:15224192 (CDX2, ERBB2, MET, FGFR2, TP53, APC, CTNNB1, KRAS, CDH1)
  Authors
Zheng L, Wang L, Ajani J, Xie K.
  Title
Molecular basis of gastric cancer development and progression.
  Journal
Gastric Cancer 7:61-77 (2004)
DOI:10.1007/s10120-004-0277-4
Reference
PMID:26073375 (CDX2, TERT, ERBB2, CCNE1, MET, FGFR2, MLH1, TP53, APC, CTNNB1, KRAS, NRAS, CDH1, PIK3CA)
  Authors
Tan P, Yeoh KG
  Title
Genetics and Molecular Pathogenesis of Gastric Adenocarcinoma.
  Journal
Gastroenterology 149:1153-1162.e3 (2015)
DOI:10.1053/j.gastro.2015.05.059
Reference
PMID:26267324 (CDKN1B, TGFBR1)
  Authors
Riquelme I, Saavedra K, Espinoza JA, Weber H, Garcia P, Nervi B, Garrido M, Corvalan AH, Roa JC, Bizama C
  Title
Molecular classification of gastric cancer: Towards a pathway-driven targeted therapy.
  Journal
Oncotarget 6:24750-79 (2015)
DOI:10.18632/oncotarget.4990
Reference
  Authors
Stock M, Otto F
  Title
Gene deregulation in gastric cancer.
  Journal
Gene 360:1-19 (2005)
DOI:10.1016/j.gene.2005.06.026
Reference
  Authors
Panani AD
  Title
Cytogenetic and molecular aspects of gastric cancer: clinical implications.
  Journal
Cancer Lett 266:99-115 (2008)
DOI:10.1016/j.canlet.2008.02.053
Reference
  Authors
Vauhkonen M, Vauhkonen H, Sipponen P
  Title
Pathology and molecular biology of gastric cancer.
  Journal
Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 20:651-74 (2006)
DOI:10.1016/j.bpg.2006.03.016
Reference
PMID:15273732 (MUTYH)
  Authors
Kim CJ, Cho YG, Park CH, Kim SY, Nam SW, Lee SH, Yoo NJ, Lee JY, Park WS
  Title
Genetic alterations of the MYH gene in gastric cancer.
  Journal
Oncogene 23:6820-2 (2004)
DOI:10.1038/sj.onc.1207574
Reference
PMID:15608678 (PIK3CA)
  Authors
Lee JW, Soung YH, Kim SY, Lee HW, Park WS, Nam SW, Kim SH, Lee JY, Yoo NJ, Lee SH
  Title
PIK3CA gene is frequently mutated in breast carcinomas and hepatocellular carcinomas.
  Journal
Oncogene 24:1477-80 (2005)
DOI:10.1038/sj.onc.1208304
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