KEGG   DISEASE: Polymyositis and dermatomyositis
H01604                      Disease                                
Polymyositis and dermatomyositis
Polymyositis (PM) and dermatomyositis (DM) are the two major forms of inflammatory muscle diseases. PM and DM, along with sporadic inclusion-body myositis (sIBM), belong to the heterogeneous group of the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs), which are characterized by weakness and chronic inflammation of skeletal muscle. PM and DM differ in their clinical features, histopathology, response to treatment, and prognosis. Although their clinical pictures differ, they both present with symmetrical, proximal muscle weakness. PM is a term that was used traditionally to denote all IIMs that were not DM or sIBM, but it is now a controversial entity with questionable specificity. Traditionally, PM is described as presenting with weakness of the proximal muscles that evolves over weeks to months and affects adults, but rarely children. DM typically includes subacute progressive proximal muscle weakness and a skin rash. The disease mechanisms of PM and DM that cause muscle damage and dysfunction are not fully understood. However, because of the association with other autoimmune diseases, the presence of autoantibodies, and response to immunosuppressive medication, they are believed to be autoimmune in origin. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of the innate immune system and non-immune mechanisms and described novel adaptive immune-based pathways in the pathogenesis of PM and DM. Treatment of inflammatory myopathies is generally empirical. Corticosteroids still remain the agents of choice for the initial treatment, but their use is limited by the high frequency of side effects. In addition, as a substantial number of patients do not respond to glucocorticoids alone, additional agents such as immunosuppressants, immunomodulators, and more recently, biologics are commonly used in clinical practice.
Musculoskeletal disease
Human diseases [BR:br08402]
 Musculoskeletal diseases
  Other musculoskeletal diseases
   H01604  Polymyositis and dermatomyositis
Human diseases in ICD-11 classification [BR:br08403]
 04 Diseases of the immune system
  Nonorgan specific systemic autoimmune disorders
   4A41  Idiopathic inflammatory myopathy
    H01604  Polymyositis and dermatomyositis
Triamcinolone acetonide [DR:D00983]
Dexamethasone [DR:D00292]
Hydrocortisone sodium succinate [DR:D00978]
Prednisolone sodium phosphate [DR:D00981]
Prednisone [DR:D00473]
Methylprednisolone [DR:D00407]
Methylprednisolone sodium succinate [DR:D00751]
Methylprednisolone acetate [DR:D00979]
Corticotropin [DR:D00146]
Cortisone acetate [DR:D00973]
HARS [HSA:3035] [KO:K01892]
TARS [HSA:6897] [KO:K01868]
AARS [HSA:16] [KO:K01872]
GARS [HSA:2617] [KO:K01880]
IARS [HSA:3376] [KO:K01870]
NARS [HSA:4677] [KO:K01893]
FARSA [HSA:2193] [KO:K01889]
FARSB [HSA:10056] [KO:K01890]
IFIH1 [HSA:64135] [KO:K12647]
TRIM33 [HSA:51592] [KO:K08883]
MORC3 [HSA:23515]
SAE1 [HSA:10055] [KO:K10684]
SAE2 [HSA:10054] [KO:K10685]
Other DBs
ICD-11: 4A41.0 4A41.1
ICD-10: M33
MeSH: D017285 D003882
Vermaak E, Tansley SL, McHugh NJ
The evidence for immunotherapy in dermatomyositis and polymyositis: a systematic review.
Clin Rheumatol 34:2089-95 (2015)
Lahouti AH, Christopher-Stine L
Polymyositis and dermatomyositis: novel insights into the pathogenesis and potential therapeutic targets.
Discov Med 19:463-70 (2015)
PMID:23758833 (autoantigen, description)
Rayavarapu S, Coley W, Kinder TB, Nagaraju K
Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies: pathogenic mechanisms of muscle weakness.
Skelet Muscle 3:13 (2013)
Findlay AR, Goyal NA, Mozaffar T
An overview of polymyositis and dermatomyositis.
Muscle Nerve 51:638-56 (2015)

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