KEGG   DISEASE: Small cell lung cancer
Entry
H00013                      Disease                                
Name
Small cell lung cancer
Description
Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer death among men and women in industrialized countries. Small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) is a highly aggressive neoplasm, which accounts for approximately 25% of all lung cancer cases. Molecular mechanisms altered in SCLC include induced expression of oncogene, MYC, and loss of tumorsuppressor genes, such as p53, PTEN, RB, and FHIT. The overexpression of MYC proteins in SCLC is largely a result of gene amplification. Such overexpression leads to more rapid proliferation and loss of terminal differentiation. Mutation or deletion of p53 or PTEN can lead to more rapid proliferation and reduced apoptosis. The retinoblastoma gene RB1 encodes a nuclear phosphoprotein that helps to regulate cell-cycle progression. The fragile histidine triad gene FHIT encodes the enzyme diadenosine triphosphate hydrolase, which is thought to have an indirect role in proapoptosis and cell-cycle control.
Category
Cancer
Brite
Human diseases [BR:br08402]
 Cancers
  Cancers of the lung and pleura
   H00013  Small cell lung cancer
Human diseases in ICD-11 classification [BR:br08403]
 02 Neoplasms
  Malignant neoplasms, except primary neoplasms of lymphoid, haematopoietic, central nervous system or related tissues
   Malignant neoplasms, stated or presumed to be primary, of specified sites, except of lymphoid, haematopoietic, central nervous system or related tissues
    Malignant neoplasms of middle ear, respiratory or intrathoracic organs
     2C25  Malignant neoplasms of bronchus or lung
      H00013  Small cell lung cancer
Tumor markers [br08442.html]
 H00013
Cancer-associated carbohydrates [br08441.html]
 H00013
Pathway
hsa05222  Small cell lung cancer
Related
pathway
hsa05200  Pathways in cancer
hsa05206  MicroRNAs in cancer
Network
nt06267  Small cell lung cancer
Gene
MYC (amplification) [HSA:4609] [KO:K04377]
BCL2 (overexpression) [HSA:596] [KO:K02161]
FHIT [HSA:2272] [KO:K01522]
TP53 [HSA:7157] [KO:K04451]
RB1 [HSA:5925] [KO:K06618]
PTEN [HSA:5728] [KO:K01110]
PPP2R1B [HSA:5519] [KO:K03456]
Carcinogen
Arsenic and arsenic compounds [CPD:C06269]
Asbestos [CPD:C16442]
Beryllium and beryllium compounds [CPD:C16460]
Bis(chloromethyl)ether and chloromethyl methyl ether (technical-grade)
N'-Nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-(N-Nitrosomethylamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone(NNK) [CPD:C16452 C16453]
Radon-222 and its decay products
Silica, crystalline (inhaled in the form of quartz orcristobalite from occupational sources) [CPD:C16459]
Tobacco smoking and tobacco smoke
*Aluminium production
*Benzo[a]pyrene [CPD:C07535]
*Cadmium and cadmium compounds
*Chimney sweeping
*Coal gasification
*Coal-tar pitches [CPD:C16451]
*Coal-tars
*Coke production
*Furniture and cabinet making
*Haematite mining (underground) with exposure to radon
*Household combustion of coal, indoor emissions from
*Involuntary smoking (exposure to secondhand or environmental tobacco smoke)
*Iron and steel founding
*Mineral oils, untreated and mildly treated
*Painter (occupational exposure as a)
*Paving and roofing with coal-tar pitch
*Shale-oils [CPD:C16458]
*Soots
*Strong-inorganic-acid mists containing sulfuric acid
*Talc containing asbestiform fibres
*2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin
*X- and gamma-radiation
*: Although this is a risk factor for lung cancer in general, the strength of association with different histological tumor types is not well understood.
Drug
Methotrexate sodium [DR:D02115]
Etoposide [DR:D00125]
Etoposide phosphate [DR:D04107]
Topotecan hydrochloride [DR:D02168]
Nivolumab [DR:D10316]
Pembrolizumab [DR:D10574]
Durvalumab [DR:D10808]
Atezolizumab [DR:D10773]
Lurbinectedin [DR:D11644]
Trilaciclib dihydrochloride [DR:D11987]
Other DBs
ICD-11: 2C25.1
ICD-10: C34
MeSH: D055752
Reference
  Authors
Yokota J, Nishioka M, Tani M, Kohno T.
  Title
Genetic alterations responsible for metastatic phenotypes of lung cancer cells.
  Journal
Clin Exp Metastasis 20:189-93 (2003)
DOI:10.1023/a:1022978932215
Reference
  Authors
Sanchez-Cespedes M.
  Title
Dissecting the genetic alterations involved in lung carcinogenesis.
  Journal
Lung Cancer 40:111-21 (2003)
DOI:10.1016/S0169-5002(03)00033-3
Reference
  Authors
Mitsuuchi Y, Testa JR.
  Title
Cytogenetics and molecular genetics of lung cancer.
  Journal
Am J Med Genet 115:183-8 (2002)
DOI:10.1002/ajmg.10692
Reference
  Authors
Panani AD, Roussos C.
  Title
Cytogenetic and molecular aspects of lung cancer.
  Journal
Cancer Lett 239:1-9 (2006)
DOI:10.1016/j.canlet.2005.06.030
Reference
PMID:2983887 (MYC amplification)
  Authors
Saksela K, Bergh J, Lehto VP, Nilsson K, Alitalo K
  Title
Amplification of the c-myc oncogene in a subpopulation of human small cell lung cancer.
  Journal
Cancer Res 45:1823-7 (1985)
Reference
PMID:17426248 (BCL2 overexpression)
  Authors
Olejniczak ET, Van Sant C, Anderson MG, Wang G, Tahir SK, Sauter G, Lesniewski R, Semizarov D
  Title
Integrative genomic analysis of small-cell lung carcinoma reveals correlates of sensitivity to bcl-2 antagonists and uncovers novel chromosomal gains.
  Journal
Mol Cancer Res 5:331-9 (2007)
DOI:10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-06-0367
Reference
PMID:8620533 (FHIT)
  Authors
Sozzi G, Veronese ML, Negrini M, Baffa R, Cotticelli MG, Inoue H, Tornielli S, Pilotti S, De Gregorio L, Pastorino U, Pierotti MA, Ohta M, Huebner K, Croce CM
  Title
The FHIT gene 3p14.2 is abnormal in lung cancer.
  Journal
Cell 85:17-26 (1996)
DOI:10.1016/s0092-8674(00)81078-8
Reference
PMID:2554494 (TP53)
  Authors
Takahashi T, Nau MM, Chiba I, Birrer MJ, Rosenberg RK, Vinocour M, Levitt M, Pass H, Gazdar AF, Minna JD
  Title
p53: a frequent target for genetic abnormalities in lung cancer.
  Journal
Science 246:491-4 (1989)
DOI:10.1126/science.2554494
Reference
PMID:2594029 (RB1)
  Authors
Yandell DW, Campbell TA, Dayton SH, Petersen R, Walton D, Little JB, McConkie-Rosell A, Buckley EG, Dryja TP
  Title
Oncogenic point mutations in the human retinoblastoma gene: their application to genetic counseling.
  Journal
N Engl J Med 321:1689-95 (1989)
DOI:10.1056/NEJM198912213212501
Reference
PMID:9696041 (PTEN)
  Authors
Yokomizo A, Tindall DJ, Drabkin H, Gemmill R, Franklin W, Yang P, Sugio K, Smith DI, Liu W
  Title
PTEN/MMAC1 mutations identified in small cell, but not in non-small cell lung cancers.
  Journal
Oncogene 17:475-9 (1998)
DOI:10.1038/sj.onc.1201956
Reference
PMID:9765152 (PPP2R1B)
  Authors
Wang SS, Esplin ED, Li JL, Huang L, Gazdar A, Minna J, Evans GA
  Title
Alterations of the PPP2R1B gene in human lung and colon cancer.
  Journal
Science 282:284-7 (1998)
DOI:10.1126/science.282.5387.284
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