KEGG   DISEASE: Psoriasis
H01656                      Disease                                
Psoriasis (PSORS) is a chronic, immune-mediated inflammatory skin disease, characterized by increased propagation of the epidermis with dilation of dermal capillaries. The major symptoms of psoriasis are itchy, scaly, and flaky skin, swelling, pain, and disfiguring skin lesions. Plaque psoriasis is the most common form. Other forms include flexural, guttate, nail, inverse psoriasis, erythroderma, and psoriatic arthritis. Nail psoriasis can accompany any form of psoriasis or occur of its own accord. It can occur in any age group, but psoriatic arthritis usually develops between the ages of 30-50 years. Various factors such as bacterial infection, genetic and environmental factors, and immune disorders play an important role in causing psoriasis. Psoriasis is associated with several comorbidities, including cardiovascular disease, lymphoma, and depression. Psoriasis is an immune-mediated disease with genetic predisposition, but no distinct immunogen has been identified. The presence of cytokines, dendritic cells, and T lymphocytes in psoriatic lesions has prompted the development of biologic therapies. The diagnosis is usually clinical, based on the presence of typical erythematous scaly patches, papules, and plaques that are often pruritic and sometimes painful. Biopsy is rarely needed to confirm the diagnosis. First-line therapies for most patients are topical treatments such as topical corticosteroids and vitamin D analogs. For those with more severe or treatment-resistant disease, second- or third-line therapies include phototherapy, systemic therapies such as methotrexate, and more recently biologic therapies such as tumour necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors.
Skin disease
Human diseases [BR:br08402]
 Skin diseases
  Skin and soft tissue diseases
   H01656  Psoriasis
Human diseases in ICD-11 classification [BR:br08403]
 14 Diseases of the skin
  Inflammatory dermatoses
   Papulosquamous dermatoses
    EA90  Psoriasis
     H01656  Psoriasis
(PSORS1) HLA-C [HSA:3107] [KO:K06751]
(PSORS2) CARD14 [HSA:79092] [KO:K20913]
(PSORS13) TRAF3IP2 [HSA:10758] [KO:K21124]
(PSORS14) IL36RN [HSA:26525] [KO:K05483]
(PSORS15) AP1S3 [HSA:130340] [KO:K12395]
Dexamethasone sodium phosphate [DR:D00975]
Hydrocortisone [DR:D00088]
Prednisolone [DR:D00472]
Betamethasone dipropionate [DR:D01637]
Calcitriol [DR:D00129]
Anthralin [DR:D00233]
Methoxsalen [DR:D00139]
Calcipotriene [DR:D01125]
Calcipotriol hydrate [DR:D10198]
Tazarotene [DR:D01132]
Calcipotriene and betamethasone dipropionate [DR:D10534]
Halobetasol and tazarotene [DR:D11932]
Acitretin [DR:D02754]
Methylprednisolone [DR:D00407]
Desoximetasone [DR:D03697]
Halobetasol propionate [DR:D04409]
Clobetasol propionate [DR:D01272]
Corticotropin [DR:D00146]
Cortisone acetate [DR:D00973]
Methotrexate [DR:D00142]
Methotrexate sodium [DR:D02115]
Tofacitinib citrate [DR:D09783]
Apremilast [DR:D08860]
Etanercept [DR:D00742]
Infliximab [DR:D02598]
Adalimumab [DR:D02597]
Ustekinumab [DR:D09214]
Secukinumab [DR:D09967]
Brodalumab [DR:D10061]
Ixekizumab [DR:D10071]
Guselkumab [DR:D10438]
Tildrakizumab [DR:D10400]
Risankizumab [DR:D11052]
Cyclosporine [DR:D00184]
Other DBs
ICD-11: EA90
ICD-10: L40
MeSH: D011565
OMIM: 177900 602723 614070 614204 616106
Garg T, Rath G, Goyal AK
Nanotechnological approaches for the effective management of psoriasis.
Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol 44:1374-82 (2016)
Weigle N, McBane S
Am Fam Physician 87:626-33 (2013)
PMID:24350319 (description, drug)
Burfield L, Burden AD
J R Coll Physicians Edinb 43:334-8; quiz 339 (2013)
PMID:15708945 (drug)
Lebwohl M, Ting PT, Koo JY
Psoriasis treatment: traditional therapy.
Ann Rheum Dis 64 Suppl 2:ii83-6 (2005)
Limaye K
Psoriasis: an overview and update.
Nurse Pract 40:23-6 (2015)
Asumalahti K, Laitinen T, Itkonen-Vatjus R, Lokki ML, Suomela S, Snellman E, Saarialho-Kere U, Kere J
A candidate gene for psoriasis near HLA-C, HCR (Pg8), is highly polymorphic with a disease-associated susceptibility allele.
Hum Mol Genet 9:1533-42 (2000)
Jordan CT, Cao L, Roberson ED, Pierson KC, Yang CF, Joyce CE, Ryan C, Duan S, Helms CA, Liu Y, Chen Y, McBride AA, Hwu WL, Wu JY, Chen YT, Menter A, Goldbach-Mansky R, Lowes MA, Bowcock AM
PSORS2 is due to mutations in CARD14.
Am J Hum Genet 90:784-95 (2012)
Huffmeier U, Uebe S, Ekici AB, Bowes J, Giardina E, Korendowych E, Juneblad K, Apel M, McManus R, Ho P, Bruce IN, Ryan AW, Behrens F, Lascorz J, Bohm B, Traupe H, Lohmann J, Gieger C, Wichmann HE, Herold C, Steffens M, Klareskog L, Wienker TF, Fitzgerald O, Alenius GM, McHugh NJ, Novelli G, Burkhardt H, Barton A, Reis A
Common variants at TRAF3IP2 are associated with susceptibility to psoriatic arthritis and psoriasis.
Nat Genet 42:996-9 (2010)
Farooq M, Nakai H, Fujimoto A, Fujikawa H, Matsuyama A, Kariya N, Aizawa A, Fujiwara H, Ito M, Shimomura Y
Mutation analysis of the IL36RN gene in 14 Japanese patients with generalized pustular psoriasis.
Hum Mutat 34:176-83 (2013)
Setta-Kaffetzi N, Simpson MA, Navarini AA, Patel VM, Lu HC, Allen MH, Duckworth M, Bachelez H, Burden AD, Choon SE, Griffiths CE, Kirby B, Kolios A, Seyger MM, Prins C, Smahi A, Trembath RC, Fraternali F, Smith CH, Barker JN, Capon F
AP1S3 mutations are associated with pustular psoriasis and impaired Toll-like receptor 3 trafficking.
Am J Hum Genet 94:790-7 (2014)

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