KEGG DRUG Database

KEGG DRUG is a comprehensive drug information resource for approved drugs in Japan, USA and Europe, unified based on the chemical structure and/or the chemical component of active ingredients. Each KEGG DRUG entry is identified by the D number and associated with KEGG original annotations including therapeutic targets, drug metabolism, and other molecular interaction network information.

Current statistics (2023/3/25)
KEGG DRUG entries (D numbers) 12,099
D numbers with targets 6,571
   D numbers with human gene targets 5,336
   Unique human genes (hsa IDs) 1,165
   Unique human gene variants (hsa_var IDs) 54
D numbers linked to Japanese drug labels 2,263
   with indicated diseases (H numbers) 1,561
   Unique H numbers 477
D numbers linked to FDA drug labels 2,008
   with indicated diseases (H numbers) 1,459
   Unique H numbers 476
Special drug types
Antibody therapy products 563
Antisense therapy products 54
Enzyme replacement therapy products 29
Gene therapy products 14
Cellular therapy products 15

KEGG DGROUP Database

KEGG DGROUP contains structurally and functionally related groups of D number entries in KEGG DRUG. There are five types of drug groups.
  • Chemical - grouped as identical chemical structures with minor variations of salts, hydration states, etc.
  • Structure - grouped as similar chemical structures having the same skeleton, etc.
  • Target - grouped by drug targets
  • Class - drug classes often representing similar mechanisms of action
  • Metabolism - grouped by substrates, inhibitors and inducers of drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters
Chemical groups are often used for identifying essentially the same active ingredients of drugs in different countries.


Drug Classification

KEGG DRUG entries are systematically organized in various ways, utilizing both established and KEGG-original classification systems and focusing on specific features such as drug targets and gene variants.

Category Classification Additional info Remark
Prescription drug ATC Classification Product ATC 2023 Updated!
USP drug classification USP DC 2023 Updated!
Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan JP18 (2021)
OTC drug (Japan) Classification of Japanese OTC drugs
Risk category of Japanese OTC drugs
Crude drug (Japan) TCM drugs in Japan JP18
Non-JPS 2018
Crude drugs in Japan



Generic Names and Trade Names

The generic names of drugs can be different in different countries or organizations. The same structure may be called differently and the same name may mean different structures. To accommodate such differences the generic names are associated with the following codes in parentheses.
  • JAN - Japanese Approved Name
  • USAN - United States Adopted Name
  • NF - National Formulary drug name
  • INN - International Nonproprietary Name
  • BAN - British Approved Name
  • DCF - Dénomination commune française
Specifically, for the drugs in Japan and USA whether they are listed in the pharmacopoeia is denoted by: which also imply the JAN and USAN names, respectively. Furthermore, the drugs in Japan include:
  • Non-JPS - Japanese standards for non-Pharmacopoeial crude drugs
for additional crude drugs.

When drug products are available in Japan and/or USA, the following notations are often utilized:
<JP> <JP/US> <US>

Additional Databases

There are two additional databases associated with KEGG DRUG/DGROUP.

Drug Interaction Database contains known adverse drug-drug interactions associated with contraindications (CI) and precautions (P) extracted from all the drug labels of Japanese prescription drugs. KEGG Drug Structure Maps are part of the KEGG PATHWAY database, graphically illustrating our knowledge of drug development, as many marketed drugs have been developed from lead compounds or existing drugs by introducing chemical structure transformations retaining the core chemical structures.

Last updated: January 16, 2023