KEGG   DISEASE: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
H01895                      Disease                                
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric disorder first diagnosed in childhood and frequently persistent throughout adult life. The disorder is classically characterized by symptoms of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Many children with ADHD go on to have problems related to education, social functioning, and/or other mental illness as adolescents and young adults. Although heritability estimates are consistently high, ADHD is a genetically complex disorder characterized by multifactorial inheritance involving numerous genes of moderate effect. Reports implicate variants of genes important for the synthesis, uptake, transport and receptor binding of dopamine in the etiology of ADHD. And interaction between the dopamine and serotonin systems has been implicated in both the pathophysiology of ADHD and the mechanism of action of widely used stimulant compounds.
Mental and behavioural disorder
Human diseases [BR:br08402]
 Other diseases
  Mental and behavioural disorders
   H01895  Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
Human diseases in ICD-11 classification [BR:br08403]
 06 Mental, behavioural or neurodevelopmental disorders
  Neurodevelopmental disorders
   6A05  Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    H01895  Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
hsa00380  Tryptophan metabolism
DRD4 [HSA:1815] [KO:K04147]
DRD5 [HSA:1816] [KO:K05840]
TPH2 [HSA:121278] [KO:K00502]
Guanfacine hydrochloride [DR:D00606]
Viloxazine hydrochloride [DR:D02572]
Amfetamine [DR:D07445]
Amphetamine sulfate [DR:D02074]
Dextroamphetamine [DR:D03740]
Dextroamphetamine sulfate [DR:D02078]
Methamphetamine hydrochloride [DR:D02242]
Methylphenidate [DR:D04999]
Methylphenidate hydrochloride [DR:D01296]
Atomoxetine hydrochloride [DR:D02574]
Dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride [DR:D03721]
Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate [DR:D04747]
Serdexmethylphenidate and dexmethylphenidate [DR:D11989]
Amphetamine aspartate, amphetamine sulfate, dextroamphetamine saccharate and dextroamphetamine sulfate [DR:D11624]
Other DBs
ICD-11: 6A05
ICD-10: F90.0
MeSH: D001289
OMIM: 143465 613003
Matthews M, Nigg JT, Fair DA
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Curr Top Behav Neurosci 16:235-66 (2014)
Kustanovich V, Ishii J, Crawford L, Yang M, McGough JJ, McCracken JT, Smalley SL, Nelson SF
Transmission disequilibrium testing of dopamine-related candidate gene polymorphisms in ADHD: confirmation of association of ADHD with DRD4 and DRD5.
Mol Psychiatry 9:711-7 (2004)
Walitza S, Renner TJ, Dempfle A, Konrad K, Wewetzer Ch, Halbach A, Herpertz-Dahlmann B, Remschmidt H, Smidt J, Linder M, Flierl L, Knolker U, Friedel S, Schafer H, Gross C, Hebebrand J, Warnke A, Lesch KP
Transmission disequilibrium of polymorphic variants in the tryptophan hydroxylase-2 gene in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
Mol Psychiatry 10:1126-32 (2005)
Roskell NS, Setyawan J, Zimovetz EA, Hodgkins P
Systematic evidence synthesis of treatments for ADHD in children and adolescents: indirect treatment comparisons of lisdexamfetamine with methylphenidate and atomoxetine.
Curr Med Res Opin 30:1673-85 (2014)
Bello NT
Clinical utility of guanfacine extended release in the treatment of ADHD in children and adolescents.
Patient Prefer Adherence 9:877-85 (2015)

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