EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance - Homo sapiens (human)
EGFR is a tyrosine kinase that participates in the regulation of cellular homeostasis. EGFR also serves as a stimulus for cancer growth. EGFR gene mutations and protein overexpression, both of which activate down- stream pathways, are associated with cancers, especially lung cancer. Several tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapies against EGFR are currently administered and are initially effective in cancer patients who have EGFR mutations or aberrant activation of EGFR. However, the development of TKI resistance is common and results in the recurrence of tumors. Studies over the last decade have identified mechanisms that drive resistance to EGFR TKI treatment. Most outstanding mechanisms are: the secondary EGFR mutation (T790M), activation of alternative pathways (c-Met, HGF, AXL), aberrance of the downstream pathways (K-RAS mutations, loss of PTEN), impairment of the EGFR-TKIs-mediated apoptosis pathway (BCL2-like 11/BIM deletion polymorphism), histologic transformation, etc.
Zhou BB, Peyton M, He B, Liu C, Girard L, Caudler E, Lo Y, Baribaud F, Mikami I, Reguart N, Yang G, Li Y, Yao W, Vaddi K, Gazdar AF, Friedman SM, Jablons DM, Newton RC, Fridman JS, Minna JD, Scherle PA
Targeting ADAM-mediated ligand cleavage to inhibit HER3 and EGFR pathways in non-small cell lung cancer.
Costa C, Molina MA, Drozdowskyj A, Gimenez-Capitan A, Bertran-Alamillo J, Karachaliou N, Gervais R, Massuti B, Wei J, Moran T, Majem M, Felip E, Carcereny E, Garcia-Campelo R, Viteri S, Taron M, Ono M, Giannikopoulos P, Bivona T, Rosell R
The impact of EGFR T790M mutations and BIM mRNA expression on outcome in patients with EGFR-mutant NSCLC treated with erlotinib or chemotherapy in the randomized phase III EURTAC trial.