KEGG   DISEASE: Thyroid cancer
Entry
H00032                      Disease                                
Name
Thyroid cancer
  Subgroup
Nonmedullary thyroid cancer (NMTC)
  Supergrp
Solid tumor [DS:H02421]
Description
Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy and accounts for the majority of endocrine cancer- related deaths each year. More than 95% of thyroid carcinomas are derived from follicular cells. Their behavior varies from the indolent growing, well-differentiated papillary and follicular carcinomas (PTC and FTC, respectively) to the extremely aggressive undifferentiated carcinoma (UC). Somatic rearrangements of RET and TRK are almost exclusively found in PTC and may be found in early stages. The most distinctive molecular features of FTC are the prominence of aneuploidy and the high prevalence of RAS mutations and PAX8-PPAR{gamma} rearrangements. p53 seems to play a crucial role in the dedifferentiation process of thyroid carcinoma.
Category
Cancer
Brite
Human diseases [BR:br08402]
 Cancers
  Cancers of endocrine organs
   H00032  Thyroid cancer
Human diseases in ICD-11 classification [BR:br08403]
 02 Neoplasms
  Malignant neoplasms, except primary neoplasms of lymphoid, haematopoietic, central nervous system or related tissues
   Malignant neoplasms, stated or presumed to be primary, of specified sites, except of lymphoid, haematopoietic, central nervous system or related tissues
    Malignant neoplasms of endocrine glands
     2D10  Malignant neoplasms of thyroid gland
      H00032  Thyroid cancer
Tumor markers [br08442.html]
 H00032
Pathway
hsa05216  Thyroid cancer
Related
pathway
hsa05200  Pathways in cancer
hsa05202  Transcriptional misregulation in cancer
Network
nt06274  Thyroid cancer
Gene
RET/CCDC6 (rearrangement) [HSA:5979 8030] [KO:K05126 K09288]
RET/NCOA4 (rearrangement) [HSA:5979 8031] [KO:K05126 K09289]
TPM3/NTRK1 (rearrangement) [HSA:4914 7170] [KO:K03176 K09290]
TPR/NTRK1 (rearrangement) [HSA:7175 7170] [KO:K09291 K09290]
TFG/NTRK1 (rearrangement) [HSA:10342 7170] [KO:K09292 K09290]
PAX8/PPARG (rearrangement) [HSA:7849 5468] [KO:K09293 K08530]
KRAS [HSA:3845] [KO:K07827]
HRAS [HSA:3265] [KO:K02833]
NRAS [HSA:4893] [KO:K07828]
BRAF [HSA:673] [KO:K04365]
CTNNB1 [HSA:1499] [KO:K02105]
TP53 [HSA:7157] [KO:K04451]
CDH1 [HSA:999] [KO:K05689]
MINPP1 [HSA:9562] [KO:K03103]
(NMTC1) NKX2-1 [HSA:7080] [KO:K09342]
(NMTC2) SRGAP1 [HSA:57522] [KO:K07526]
(NMTC4) FOXE1 [HSA:2304] [KO:K09398]
(NMTC5) HABP2 [HSA:3026] [KO:K08648]
Carcinogen
Radium-224 and its decay products [CPD:C16455]
Radioiodines, short-lived isotopes, including iodine131, from atomic reactor accidents and nuclear
Drug
Doxorubicin hydrochloride [DR:D01275]
Dabrafenib mesylate [DR:D10104] (BRAF mutation positive)
Trametinib dimethyl sulfoxide [DR:D10176] (BRAF mutation positive)
Sorafenib tosylate [DR:D06272]
Cabozantinib s-malate [DR:D10095]
Lenvatinib mesylate [DR:D09920]
Selpercatinib [DR:D11713] (RET fusion positive)
Pralsetinib [DR:D11712] (RET fusion positive)
Sodium iodide I 131 [DR:D02259]
Thyroid [DR:D06482]
Other DBs
ICD-11: 2D10
ICD-10: C73
MeSH: D013964
OMIM: 188550 188470 616534 616535
Reference
  Authors
Gimm O.
  Title
Thyroid cancer.
  Journal
Cancer Lett 163:143-56 (2001)
DOI:10.1016/S0304-3835(00)00697-2
Reference
PMID:16557281 (RET/CCDC6, TPM3/NTRK1, TPR/NTRK1, TFG/NTRK1, BRAF, CTNNB1, TP53, CDH1)
  Authors
Kondo T, Ezzat S, Asa SL.
  Title
Pathogenetic mechanisms in thyroid follicular-cell neoplasia.
  Journal
Nat Rev Cancer 6:292-306 (2006)
DOI:10.1038/nrc1836
Reference
PMID:16189702 (RET/CCDC6, RET/NCOA4, PAX8/PPARG, KRAS, HRAS, NRAS)
  Authors
Sobrinho-Simoes M, Preto A, Rocha AS, Castro P, Maximo V, Fonseca E, Soares P.
  Title
Molecular pathology of well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas.
  Journal
Virchows Arch 447:787-93 (2005)
DOI:10.1007/s00428-005-0065-5
Reference
PMID:11297621 (MINPP1)
  Authors
Gimm O, Chi H, Dahia PL, Perren A, Hinze R, Komminoth P, Dralle H, Reynolds PR, Eng C
  Title
Somatic mutation and germline variants of MINPP1, a phosphatase gene located in proximity to PTEN on 10q23.3, in follicular thyroid carcinomas.
  Journal
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86:1801-5 (2001)
DOI:10.1210/jcem.86.4.7419
Reference
PMID:19176457 (NMTC1)
  Authors
Ngan ES, Lang BH, Liu T, Shum CK, So MT, Lau DK, Leon TY, Cherny SS, Tsai SY, Lo CY, Khoo US, Tam PK, Garcia-Barcelo MM
  Title
A germline mutation (A339V) in thyroid transcription factor-1 (TITF-1/NKX2.1) in patients with multinodular goiter and papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  Journal
J Natl Cancer Inst 101:162-75 (2009)
DOI:10.1093/jnci/djn471
Reference
PMID:23539728 (NMTC2)
  Authors
He H, Bronisz A, Liyanarachchi S, Nagy R, Li W, Huang Y, Akagi K, Saji M, Kula D, Wojcicka A, Sebastian N, Wen B, Puch Z, Kalemba M, Stachlewska E, Czetwertynska M, Dlugosinska J, Dymecka K, Ploski R, Krawczyk M, Morrison PJ, Ringel MD, Kloos RT, Jazdzewski K, Symer DE, Vieland VJ, Ostrowski M, Jarzab B, de la Chapelle A
  Title
SRGAP1 is a candidate gene for papillary thyroid carcinoma susceptibility.
  Journal
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 98:E973-80 (2013)
DOI:10.1210/jc.2012-3823
Reference
PMID:25381600 (NMTC4)
  Authors
Pereira JS, da Silva JG, Tomaz RA, Pinto AE, Bugalho MJ, Leite V, Cavaco BM
  Title
Identification of a novel germline FOXE1 variant in patients with familial non-medullary thyroid carcinoma (FNMTC).
  Journal
Endocrine 49:204-14 (2015)
DOI:10.1007/s12020-014-0470-0
Reference
PMID:26222560 (NMTC5)
  Authors
Gara SK, Jia L, Merino MJ, Agarwal SK, Zhang L, Cam M, Patel D, Kebebew E
  Title
Germline HABP2 Mutation Causing Familial Nonmedullary Thyroid Cancer.
  Journal
N Engl J Med 373:448-55 (2015)
DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa1502449
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