KEGG   PATHWAY: ko04260
ko04260                     Pathway                                

Cardiac muscle contraction
Contraction of the heart is a complex process initiated by the electrical excitation of cardiac myocytes (excitation-contraction coupling, ECC). In cardiac myocytes, Ca2+ influx induced by activation of voltage-dependent L-type Ca channels (DHP receptors) upon membrane depolarization triggers the release of Ca2+ via Ca2+ release channels (ryanodine receptors) of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) through a Ca2+ -induced Ca release (CICR) mechanism. Ca2+ ions released via the CICR mechanism diffuse through the cytosolic space to contractile proteins to bind to troponinC resulting in the release of inhibition induced by troponinI. The Ca2+ binding to troponinC thereby triggers the sliding of thin and thick filaments, that is, the activation of a crossbridge and subsequent cardiac force development and/or cell shortening. Recovery occurs as Ca2+ is pumped out of the cell by the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) or is returned to the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) by sarco(endo)plasmic Ca2+ -ATPase (SERCA) pumps on the non-junctional region of the SR.
Organismal Systems; Circulatory system
Pathway map
ko04260  Cardiac muscle contraction

Other DBs
GO: 0060048
K04850  voltage-dependent calcium channel L type alpha-1C
K04851  voltage-dependent calcium channel L type alpha-1D
K04853  voltage-dependent calcium channel L type alpha-1F
K04857  voltage-dependent calcium channel L type alpha-1S
K04862  voltage-dependent calcium channel beta-1
K04863  voltage-dependent calcium channel beta-2
K04864  voltage-dependent calcium channel beta-3
K04865  voltage-dependent calcium channel beta-4
K04858  voltage-dependent calcium channel alpha-2/delta-1
K04859  voltage-dependent calcium channel alpha-2/delta-2
K04860  voltage-dependent calcium channel alpha-2/delta-3
K04861  voltage-dependent calcium channel alpha-2/delta-4
K04866  voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma-1
K04867  voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma-2
K04868  voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma-3
K04869  voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma-4
K04870  voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma-5
K04871  voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma-6
K04872  voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma-7
K04873  voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma-8
K04962  ryanodine receptor 2
K00476  aspartate beta-hydroxylase [EC:]
K23445  calsequestrin 2
K23449  triadin
K23450  sarcoplasmic reticulum histidine-rich calcium-binding protein
K05853  P-type Ca2+ transporter type 2A [EC:]
K05865  troponin C, slow skeletal and cardiac muscles
K12044  troponin I, cardiac muscle
K12045  troponin T, cardiac muscle
K10373  tropomyosin 1
K10374  tropomyosin 2
K09290  tropomyosin 3
K10375  tropomyosin 4
K12314  actin, alpha cardiac muscle
K17751  myosin heavy chain 6/7
K10351  myosin regulatory light chain 2
K12749  myosin light chain 3
K12750  myosin light chain 4
K00411  ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase iron-sulfur subunit [EC:]
K00412  ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase cytochrome b subunit
K00413  ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase cytochrome c1 subunit
K00414  ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase core subunit 1
K00415  ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase core subunit 2
K00416  ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase subunit 6
K00417  ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase subunit 7
K00418  ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase subunit 8
K00419  ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase subunit 9
K00420  ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase subunit 10
K02262  cytochrome c oxidase subunit 3
K02256  cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 [EC:]
K02261  cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2
K02263  cytochrome c oxidase subunit 4
K02264  cytochrome c oxidase subunit 5a
K02265  cytochrome c oxidase subunit 5b
K02266  cytochrome c oxidase subunit 6a
K02267  cytochrome c oxidase subunit 6b
K02268  cytochrome c oxidase subunit 6c
K02270  cytochrome c oxidase subunit 7a
K02271  cytochrome c oxidase subunit 7b
K02272  cytochrome c oxidase subunit 7c
K02273  cytochrome c oxidase subunit 8
K05849  solute carrier family 8 (sodium/calcium exchanger)
K12041  solute carrier family 9 (sodium/hydrogen exchanger), member 6/7
K01539  sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit alpha [EC:]
K01540  sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit beta
K01538  sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit gamma (FXYD domain-containing ion transport regulator 2)
K05742  solute carrier family 9 (sodium/hydrogen exchanger), member 1
C00076  Calcium cation
C00080  H+
C00238  Potassium cation
C01330  Sodium cation
Bers DM
Calcium cycling and signaling in cardiac myocytes.
Annu Rev Physiol 70:23-49 (2008)
Bers DM
Cardiac excitation-contraction coupling.
Nature 415:198-205 (2002)
Endoh M
Signal transduction and Ca2+ signaling in intact myocardium.
J Pharmacol Sci 100:525-37 (2006)
Endoh M
Cardiac Ca2+ signaling and Ca2+ sensitizers.
Circ J 72:1915-25 (2008)
Bers DM, Despa S
Cardiac myocytes Ca2+ and Na+ regulation in normal and failing hearts.
J Pharmacol Sci 100:315-22 (2006)
Gordon AM, Homsher E, Regnier M
Regulation of contraction in striated muscle.
Physiol Rev 80:853-924 (2000)
Phrommintikul A, Chattipakorn N
Roles of cardiac ryanodine receptor in heart failure and sudden cardiac death.
Int J Cardiol 112:142-52 (2006)
Lacinova L
Voltage-dependent calcium channels.
Gen Physiol Biophys 24 Suppl 1:1-78 (2005)
Lingrel J, Moseley A, Dostanic I, Cougnon M, He S, James P, Woo A, O'Connor K, Neumann J
Functional roles of the alpha isoforms of the Na,K-ATPase.
Ann N Y Acad Sci 986:354-9 (2003)
Berg JS, Powell BC, Cheney RE
A millennial myosin census.
Mol Biol Cell 12:780-94 (2001)
Parmacek MS, Solaro RJ
Biology of the troponin complex in cardiac myocytes.
Prog Cardiovasc Dis 47:159-76 (2004)
Yamashita H, Sugiura S, Fujita H, Yasuda S, Nagai R, Saeki Y, Sunagawa K, Sugi H
Myosin light chain isoforms modify force-generating ability of cardiac myosin by changing the kinetics of actin-myosin interaction.
Cardiovasc Res 60:580-8 (2003)
Pritchard TJ, Kranias EG
Junctin and the histidine-rich Ca2+ binding protein: potential roles in heart failure and arrhythmogenesis.
J Physiol 587:3125-33 (2009)
Landstrom AP, Dobrev D, Wehrens XHT
Calcium Signaling and Cardiac Arrhythmias.
Circ Res 120:1969-1993 (2017)
ko04020  Calcium signaling pathway

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