KEGG   PATHWAY: ko05032
Entry
ko05032                     Pathway                                
Name
Morphine addiction
Description
Morphine is an alkaloid from the plant extracts of opium poppy. Although morphine is highly effective for the treatment of pain, it is also known to be intensely addictive. We now know that the most important brain-reward circuit involves dopamine (DA) -containing neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of the midbrain and their target areas in the limbic forebrain, in particular, the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and frontal regions of cerebral cortex. Morphine can cause indirect excitation of VTA dopamine neurons by reducing inhibitory synaptic transmission mediated by GABAergic neurons. The chronic use of morphine is characterized by adaptive changes in neurons and neuronal communication; such adaptations (e.g., 'superactivation' of adenylyl cyclase) must underlie altered behaviour associated with morphine dependence and withdrawal syndrome, as well as drug-induced craving and relapse to drug use.
Class
Human Diseases; Substance dependence
Pathway map
ko05032  Morphine addiction
ko05032

Other DBs
GO: 0043278
Orthology
K04215  mu-type opioid receptor
K04144  dopamine receptor D1
K08041  adenylate cyclase 1 [EC:4.6.1.1]
K08042  adenylate cyclase 2 [EC:4.6.1.1]
K08043  adenylate cyclase 3 [EC:4.6.1.1]
K08044  adenylate cyclase 4 [EC:4.6.1.1]
K08045  adenylate cyclase 5 [EC:4.6.1.1]
K08046  adenylate cyclase 6 [EC:4.6.1.1]
K08047  adenylate cyclase 7 [EC:4.6.1.1]
K08048  adenylate cyclase 8 [EC:4.6.1.1]
K08049  adenylate cyclase 9 [EC:4.6.1.1]
K15015  solute carrier family 32 (vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter)
K04997  potassium inwardly-rectifying channel subfamily J member 3
K05000  potassium inwardly-rectifying channel subfamily J member 6
K05002  potassium inwardly-rectifying channel subfamily J member 9
K04999  potassium inwardly-rectifying channel subfamily J member 5
K04344  voltage-dependent calcium channel P/Q type alpha-1A
K04849  voltage-dependent calcium channel N type alpha-1B
K05175  gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha
K05181  gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta
K05186  gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma
K05184  gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit delta
K05185  gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit epsilon
K05192  gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit theta
K05189  gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit pi
K05190  gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho
K04615  gamma-aminobutyric acid type B receptor
K04630  guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(i) subunit alpha
K04534  guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(o) subunit alpha
K04536  guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(T) subunit beta-1
K04537  guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(T) subunit beta-2
K07825  guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(T) subunit beta-3
K04538  guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit beta-4
K04539  guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit beta-5
K07826  guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-2
K04540  guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-3
K04541  guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-4
K04542  guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-5
K04543  guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-7
K04544  guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-8
K04545  guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-10
K04546  guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-11
K04347  guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-12
K04547  guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-13
K04548  guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(T) subunit gamma-T1
K04549  guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-T2
K04632  guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(s) subunit alpha
K00910  beta-adrenergic-receptor kinase [EC:2.7.11.15]
K08291  G protein-coupled receptor kinase [EC:2.7.11.16]
K04439  beta-arrestin
K02677  classical protein kinase C alpha type [EC:2.7.11.13]
K19662  classical protein kinase C beta type [EC:2.7.11.13]
K19663  classical protein kinase C gamma type [EC:2.7.11.13]
K04345  protein kinase A [EC:2.7.11.11]
K13755  calcium/calmodulin-dependent 3',5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase [EC:3.1.4.17]
K18283  cGMP-dependent 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase [EC:3.1.4.17]
K19021  cGMP-inhibited 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase A [EC:3.1.4.17]
K13296  cGMP-inhibited 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase B [EC:3.1.4.17]
K13293  cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase 4 [EC:3.1.4.53]
K18436  high affinity cAMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 7 [EC:3.1.4.53]
K18437  high affinity cAMP-specific and IBMX-insensitive 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 8 [EC:3.1.4.53]
K18438  cAMP and cAMP-inhibited cGMP 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 10 [EC:3.1.4.17 3.1.4.35]
K13298  dual 3',5'-cyclic-AMP and -GMP phosphodiesterase 11 [EC:3.1.4.17 3.1.4.35]
K04265  adenosine receptor A1
Compound
C00020  AMP
C00076  Calcium cation
C00212  Adenosine
C00238  Potassium cation
C00334  4-Aminobutanoate
C00575  3',5'-Cyclic AMP
C00698  Cl-
C03758  Dopamine
D00842  Morphine sulfate (USP)
D02271  Morphine hydrochloride hydrate (JP18)
D08233  Morphine (BAN)
D08234  Morphine tartrate
Reference
  Authors
Bailey CP, Connor M
  Title
Opioids: cellular mechanisms of tolerance and physical dependence.
  Journal
Curr Opin Pharmacol 5:60-8 (2005)
DOI:10.1016/j.coph.2004.08.012
Reference
  Authors
Williams JT, Christie MJ, Manzoni O
  Title
Cellular and synaptic adaptations mediating opioid dependence.
  Journal
Physiol Rev 81:299-343 (2001)
DOI:10.1152/physrev.2001.81.1.299
Reference
  Authors
Gintzler AR, Chakrabarti S
  Title
Post-opioid receptor adaptations to chronic morphine; altered functionality and associations of signaling molecules.
  Journal
Life Sci 79:717-22 (2006)
DOI:10.1016/j.lfs.2006.02.016
Reference
PMID:8785060
  Authors
Bonci A, Williams JT
  Title
A common mechanism mediates long-term changes in synaptic transmission after chronic cocaine and morphine.
  Journal
Neuron 16:631-9 (1996)
DOI:10.1016/S0896-6273(00)80082-3
Reference
  Authors
Liu JG, Anand KJ
  Title
Protein kinases modulate the cellular adaptations associated with opioid tolerance and dependence.
  Journal
Brain Res Brain Res Rev 38:1-19 (2001)
DOI:10.1016/S0165-0173(01)00057-1
Reference
  Authors
Shoji Y, Delfs J, Williams JT
  Title
Presynaptic inhibition of GABA(B)-mediated synaptic potentials in the ventral tegmental area during morphine withdrawal.
  Journal
J Neurosci 19:2347-55 (1999)
DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.19-06-02347.1999
Reference
  Authors
Zhang Y, Chen Q, Yu LC
  Title
Morphine: a protective or destructive role in neurons?
  Journal
Neuroscientist 14:561-70 (2008)
DOI:10.1177/1073858408314434
Reference
  Authors
Tso PH, Wong YH
  Title
Molecular basis of opioid dependence: role of signal regulation by G-proteins.
  Journal
Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 30:307-16 (2003)
DOI:10.1046/j.1440-1681.2003.03835.x
Reference
PMID:1346804
  Authors
Johnson SW, North RA
  Title
Opioids excite dopamine neurons by hyperpolarization of local interneurons.
  Journal
J Neurosci 12:483-8 (1992)
DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.12-02-00483.1992
Reference
  Authors
Madhavan A, Bonci A, Whistler JL
  Title
Opioid-Induced GABA potentiation after chronic morphine attenuates the rewarding effects of opioids in the ventral tegmental area.
  Journal
J Neurosci 30:14029-35 (2010)
DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3366-10.2010
Reference
PMID:8987801
  Authors
Bonci A, Williams JT
  Title
Increased probability of GABA release during withdrawal from morphine.
  Journal
J Neurosci 17:796-803 (1997)
DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.17-02-00796.1997
Reference
  Authors
Morikawa H, Paladini CA
  Title
Dynamic regulation of midbrain dopamine neuron activity: intrinsic, synaptic, and plasticity mechanisms.
  Journal
Neuroscience 198:95-111 (2011)
DOI:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2011.08.023
Reference
  Authors
Xi ZX, Stein EA
  Title
GABAergic mechanisms of opiate reinforcement .
  Journal
Alcohol Alcohol 37:485-94 (2002)
DOI:10.1093/alcalc/37.5.485
Reference
PMID:8096779
  Authors
Kalivas PW
  Title
Neurotransmitter regulation of dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area.
  Journal
Brain Res Brain Res Rev 18:75-113 (1993)
DOI:10.1016/0165-0173(93)90008-N
Reference
  Authors
Jalabert M, Bourdy R, Courtin J, Veinante P, Manzoni OJ, Barrot M, Georges F
  Title
Neuronal circuits underlying acute morphine action on dopamine neurons.
  Journal
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:16446-50 (2011)
DOI:10.1073/pnas.1105418108
Reference
  Authors
Chakrabarti S, Gintzler AR
  Title
Phosphorylation of Gbeta is augmented by chronic morphine and enhances Gbetagamma stimulation of adenylyl cyclase activity.
  Journal
Brain Res Mol Brain Res 119:144-51 (2003)
DOI:10.1016/j.molbrainres.2003.09.002
Reference
  Authors
Ferrer-Alcon M, La Harpe R, Garcia-Sevilla JA
  Title
Decreased immunodensities of micro-opioid receptors, receptor kinases GRK 2/6 and beta-arrestin-2 in postmortem brains of opiate addicts.
  Journal
Brain Res Mol Brain Res 121:114-22 (2004)
DOI:10.1016/j.molbrainres.2003.11.009
Related
pathway
ko04727  GABAergic synapse
ko04728  Dopaminergic synapse
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