KEGG   PATHWAY: rno04721
rno04721                    Pathway                                
Synaptic vesicle cycle - Rattus norvegicus (rat)
Communication between neurons is mediated by the release of neurotransmitter from synaptic vesicles (SVs). At the nerve terminal, SVs cycle through repetitive episodes of exocytosis and endocytosis. SVs are filled with neurotransmitters by active transport. The loaded SVs are then docked at a specialized region of the presynaptic plasma membrane known as the active zone, where they undergo a priming reaction. Upon arrival of an action potential, Ca2+ enters through voltage-gated channels and neurotransmitter is released by exocytosis, usually in less than a millisecond. After fusion, the vesicle is retrieved by endocytosis and reloaded for another round of exocytosis.
Organismal Systems; Nervous system
Pathway map
rno04721  Synaptic vesicle cycle

Other DBs
GO: 0016079 0048488
Rattus norvegicus (rat) [GN:rno]
83612  Slc32a1; vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter [KO:K15015]
25549  Slc18a2; synaptic vesicular amine transporter [KO:K08155]
25693  Slc18a1; chromaffin granule amine transporter [KO:K08155]
60422  Slc18a3; vesicular acetylcholine transporter [KO:K14636]
84487  Slc17a6; vesicular glutamate transporter 2 [KO:K12302]
266767  Slc17a8; vesicular glutamate transporter 3 [KO:K12302]
116638  Slc17a7; vesicular glutamate transporter 1 [KO:K12302]
25716  Syt1; synaptotagmin-1 [KO:K15290]
24803  Vamp2; vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 [KO:K13504]
25531  Rab3a; ras-related protein Rab-3A [KO:K07882]
84556  Rims1; regulating synaptic membrane exocytosis protein 1 [KO:K15291]
116470  Stx1a; syntaxin-1A [KO:K04560]
25130  Stx2; syntaxin-2 [KO:K08486]
81802  Stx3; syntaxin-3 [KO:K08486]
24923  Stx1b; syntaxin-1B [KO:K08486]
103690878  syntaxin-3-like [KO:K08486]
25558  Stxbp1; syntaxin-binding protein 1 [KO:K15292]
64829  Unc13a; protein unc-13 homolog A [KO:K15293]
64830  Unc13b; protein unc-13 homolog B isoform u [KO:K15293]
286931  Unc13c; protein unc-13 homolog C [KO:K15293]
25012  Snap25; synaptosomal-associated protein 25 isoform a [KO:K18211]
64832  Cplx1; complexin-1 [KO:K15294]
116657  Cplx2; complexin-2 [KO:K15294]
501005  Cplx3; complexin-3 [KO:K15295]
361342  Cplx4; complexin-4 [KO:K15295]
25398  Cacna1a; voltage-dependent P/Q-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1A [KO:K04344]
257648  Cacna1b; voltage-dependent N-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1B isoform 1 [KO:K04849]
60355  Nsf; vesicle-fusing ATPase [KO:K06027] [EC:]
140673  Napa; alpha-soluble NSF attachment protein [KO:K15296]
140694  Dnm1; dynamin-1 [KO:K01528] [EC:]
171574  Dnm3; dynamin-3 [KO:K01528] [EC:]
25751  Dnm2; dynamin-2 [KO:K23484] [EC:]
83800  Clta; clathrin light chain A [KO:K04644]
116561  Cltb; clathrin light chain B [KO:K04645]
54241  Cltc; clathrin heavy chain 1 [KO:K04646]
81637  Ap2a2; AP-2 complex subunit alpha-2 [KO:K11824]
308578  Ap2a1; AP-2 complex subunit alpha-1 [KO:K11824]
140670  Ap2b1; AP-2 complex subunit beta [KO:K11825]
116563  Ap2m1; AP-2 complex subunit mu [KO:K11826]
65046  Ap2s1; AP-2 complex subunit sigma [KO:K11827]
685232  Atp6v1a; V-type proton ATPase catalytic subunit A [KO:K02145] [EC:]
117596  Atp6v1b2; V-type proton ATPase subunit B, brain isoform [KO:K02147]
312488  Atp6v1b1; V-type proton ATPase subunit B, kidney isoform [KO:K02147]
299971  Atp6v1c1; V-type proton ATPase subunit C 1 [KO:K02148]
362802  Atp6v1c2; V-type proton ATPase subunit C 2 [KO:K02148]
299159  Atp6v1d; V-type proton ATPase subunit D [KO:K02149]
297566  Atp6v1e1; V-type proton ATPase subunit E 1 [KO:K02150]
366545  Atp6v1e2; V-type proton ATPase subunit E 2 [KO:K02150]
116664  Atp6v1f; V-type proton ATPase subunit F [KO:K02151]
289407  Atp6v1g3; V-type proton ATPase subunit G 3 [KO:K02152]
298103  Atp6v1g1; V-type proton ATPase subunit G 1 [KO:K02152]
368044  Atp6v1g2; V-type proton ATPase subunit G 2 [KO:K02152]
94170  Atp6v0e1; V-type proton ATPase subunit e 1 [KO:K02153]
436582  Atp6v0e2; V-type proton ATPase subunit e 2 [KO:K02153]
29757  Atp6v0a1; V-type proton ATPase 116 kDa subunit a1 [KO:K02154]
296981  Atp6v0a4; V-type proton ATPase 116 kDa subunit a [KO:K02154]
293650  Tcirg1; V-type proton ATPase 116 kDa subunit a [KO:K02154]
116455  Atp6v0a2; V-type proton ATPase 116 kDa subunit a [KO:K02154]
291969  Atp6v0d1; V-type proton ATPase subunit d 1 [KO:K02146]
297932  Atp6v0d2; V-type proton ATPase subunit d 2 [KO:K02146]
297797  Atp6v1h; V-type proton ATPase subunit H [KO:K02144]
170667  Atp6v0c; V-type proton ATPase 16 kDa proteolipid subunit [KO:K02155]
298451  Atp6v0b; V-type proton ATPase 21 kDa proteolipid subunit [KO:K03661]
79212  Slc6a1; sodium- and chloride-dependent GABA transporter 1 [KO:K05034]
83511  Slc6a2; sodium-dependent noradrenaline transporter [KO:K05035]
24898  Slc6a3; sodium-dependent dopamine transporter [KO:K05036]
25553  Slc6a4; sodium-dependent serotonin transporter [KO:K05037]
171148  Slc6a5; sodium- and chloride-dependent glycine transporter 2 [KO:K05038]
116509  Slc6a9; sodium- and chloride-dependent glycine transporter 1 [KO:K05038]
117100  Slc6a7; sodium-dependent proline transporter [KO:K05040]
79213  Slc6a11; sodium- and chloride-dependent GABA transporter 3 [KO:K05044]
50676  Slc6a12; sodium- and chloride-dependent betaine transporter [KO:K05045]
171163  Slc6a13; sodium- and chloride-dependent GABA transporter 2 [KO:K05046]
25550  Slc1a1; excitatory amino acid transporter 3 [KO:K05612]
29482  Slc1a2; excitatory amino acid transporter 2 isoform a [KO:K05613]
29483  Slc1a3; excitatory amino acid transporter 1 isoform 1 [KO:K05614]
84012  Slc1a6; excitatory amino acid transporter 4 [KO:K05617]
366432  Slc1a7; excitatory amino acid transporter 5 [KO:K05618]
C00002  ATP
C00025  L-Glutamate
C00037  Glycine
C00076  Calcium cation
C00080  H+
C00334  4-Aminobutanoate
C00388  Histamine
C00547  L-Noradrenaline
C00780  Serotonin
C01996  Acetylcholine
C03758  Dopamine
C16041  Leu-enkephalin
Li L, Chin LS
The molecular machinery of synaptic vesicle exocytosis.
Cell Mol Life Sci 60:942-60 (2003)
Nestler EJ, Hyman SE, Malenka RC.
Molecular neuropharmacology: A foundation for clinical neuroscience
The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. (2001)
Chapman ER
How does synaptotagmin trigger neurotransmitter release?
Annu Rev Biochem 77:615-41 (2008)
Benfenati F, Onofri F, Giovedi S
Protein-protein interactions and protein modules in the control of neurotransmitter release.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 354:243-57 (1999)
de Saint Basile G, Menasche G, Fischer A
Molecular mechanisms of biogenesis and exocytosis of cytotoxic granules.
Nat Rev Immunol 10:568-79 (2010)
Carr CM, Munson M
Tag team action at the synapse.
EMBO Rep 8:834-8 (2007)
Sudhof TC
The synaptic vesicle cycle.
Annu Rev Neurosci 27:509-47 (2004)
Gundelfinger ED, Kessels MM, Qualmann B
Temporal and spatial coordination of exocytosis and endocytosis.
Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 4:127-39 (2003)
Tang J, Maximov A, Shin OH, Dai H, Rizo J, Sudhof TC
A complexin/synaptotagmin 1 switch controls fast synaptic vesicle exocytosis.
Cell 126:1175-87 (2006)
Chapman ER
Synaptotagmin: a Ca(2+) sensor that triggers exocytosis?
Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 3:498-508 (2002)
Sudhof TC
The synaptic vesicle cycle: a cascade of protein-protein interactions.
Nature 375:645-53 (1995)
Rizo J, Sudhof TC
Snares and Munc18 in synaptic vesicle fusion.
Nat Rev Neurosci 3:641-53 (2002)
Malsam J, Kreye S, Sollner TH
Membrane fusion: SNAREs and regulation.
Cell Mol Life Sci 65:2814-32 (2008)
rno04144  Endocytosis
rno04724  Glutamatergic synapse
rno04725  Cholinergic synapse
rno04726  Serotonergic synapse
rno04727  GABAergic synapse
rno04728  Dopaminergic synapse
KO pathway

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