KEGG   DISEASE: Malaria
Entry
H00361                      Disease                                
Name
Malaria
Description
Malaria, the most common parasitic disease in the world, is caused by Plasmodium parasites that are transmitted by female Anopheline mosquitoes. Plasmodium infections result in a spectrum of clinical effects, including asymptomatic parasitemia, severe malaria, and death. Most severe cases occur in sub-Saharan Africa. In severe malaria, complications such as anemia, respiratory distress, renal failure, and cerebral malaria are observed in addition to cyclical fevers.
Category
Infectious disease
Brite
Infectious diseases [BR:br08401]
 Parasitic infections (protists)
  Infections caused by Alveolates
   H00361  Malaria
Human diseases in ICD-11 classification [BR:br08403]
 01 Certain infectious or parasitic diseases
  Parasitic diseases
   Malaria
    1F40  Malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum
     H00361  Malaria
    1F41  Malaria due to Plasmodium vivax
     H00361  Malaria
    1F42  Malaria due to Plasmodium malariae
     H00361  Malaria
    1F43  Malaria due to Plasmodium ovale
     H00361  Malaria
Pathway
hsa05144  Malaria
Gene
ACKR1 (protection) [HSA:2532] [KO:K06574]
CD36 (susceptibility/reduced risk) [HSA:948] [KO:K06259]
CISH (susceptibility) [HSA:1154] [KO:K04701]
CR1 (resistance) [HSA:1378] [KO:K04011]
FCGR2A (susceptibility) [HSA:2212] [KO:K06472]
FCGR2B (resistance) [HSA:2213] [KO:K12560]
G6PD (resistance) [HSA:2539] [KO:K00036]
GYPA (resistance) [HSA:2993] [KO:K06575]
GYPB (resistance) [HSA:2994] [KO:K20925]
GYPC (resistance) [HSA:2995] [KO:K06576]
HBB (resistance) [HSA:3043] [KO:K13823]
ICAM1 (susceptibility) [HSA:3383] [KO:K06490]
NOS2 (resistance) [HSA:4843] [KO:K13241]
SLC4A1 (resistance) [HSA:6521] [KO:K06573]
TIRAP (protection) [HSA:114609] [KO:K05403]
TNF (susceptibility) [HSA:7124] [KO:K03156]
Pathogen
Plasmodium falciparum [GN:pfa pfd pfh] (Falciparum malaria)
Plasmodium vivax [GN:pvx] (Vivax malaria)
Plasmodium knowlesi H [GN:pkn]
Plasmodium malariae
Plasmodium ovale
Drug
Doxycycline hyclate [DR:D02129]
Doxycycline calcium [DR:D03903]
Sulfadiazine [DR:D00587]
Chloroquine phosphate [DR:D02125]
Hydroxychloroquine sulfate [DR:D02114]
Primaquine phosphate [DR:D02126]
Tafenoquine succinate [DR:D10670]
Atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride [DR:D02472]
Quinine sulfate [DR:D02262]
Mefloquine hydrochloride [DR:D00831]
Pyrimethamine [DR:D00488]
Artesunate [DR:D02482]
Artemether and lumefantrine [DR:D02484]
Comment
Vector: Anopheles gambiae (African malaria mosquito) [GN:aga]
Other DBs
ICD-11: 1F40 1F41 1F42 1F43
ICD-10: B50 B51 B52 B53
MeSH: D008288
MedlinePlus: 000621
OMIM: 611162
Reference
  Authors
Antinori S, Galimberti L, Milazzo L, Corbellino M
  Title
Plasmodium knowlesi: the emerging zoonotic malaria parasite.
  Journal
Acta Trop 125:191-201 (2013)
DOI:10.1016/j.actatropica.2012.10.008
Reference
  Authors
Plewes K, Leopold SJ, Kingston HWF, Dondorp AM
  Title
Malaria: What's New in the Management of Malaria?
  Journal
Infect Dis Clin North Am 33:39-60 (2019)
DOI:10.1016/j.idc.2018.10.002
Reference
PMID:10570183 (ACKR1)
  Authors
Zimmerman PA, Woolley I, Masinde GL, Miller SM, McNamara DT, Hazlett F, Mgone CS, Alpers MP, Genton B, Boatin BA, Kazura JW
  Title
Emergence of FY*A(null) in a Plasmodium vivax-endemic region of Papua New Guinea.
  Journal
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96:13973-7 (1999)
DOI:10.1073/pnas.96.24.13973
Reference
PMID:10890433 (CD36)
  Authors
Aitman TJ, Cooper LD, Norsworthy PJ, Wahid FN, Gray JK, Curtis BR, McKeigue PM, Kwiatkowski D, Greenwood BM, Snow RW, Hill AV, Scott J
  Title
Malaria susceptibility and CD36 mutation.
  Journal
Nature 405:1015-6 (2000)
DOI:10.1038/35016636
Reference
PMID:20484391 (CISH)
  Authors
Khor CC, Vannberg FO, Chapman SJ, Guo H, Wong SH, Walley AJ, Vukcevic D, Rautanen A, Mills TC, Chang KC, Kam KM, Crampin AC, Ngwira B, Leung CC, Tam CM, Chan CY, Sung JJ, Yew WW, Toh KY, Tay SK, Kwiatkowski D, Lienhardt C, Hien TT, Day NP, Peshu N, Marsh K, Maitland K, Scott JA, Williams TN, Berkley JA, Floyd S, Tang NL, Fine PE, Goh DL, Hill AV
  Title
CISH and susceptibility to infectious diseases.
  Journal
N Engl J Med 362:2092-101 (2010)
DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa0905606
Reference
PMID:18954261 (CR1)
  Authors
Teeranaipong P, Ohashi J, Patarapotikul J, Kimura R, Nuchnoi P, Hananantachai H, Naka I, Putaporntip C, Jongwutiwes S, Tokunaga K
  Title
A functional single-nucleotide polymorphism in the CR1 promoter region contributes to protection against cerebral malaria.
  Journal
J Infect Dis 198:1880-91 (2008)
DOI:10.1086/593338
Reference
PMID:12421634 (FCGR2A)
  Authors
Omi K, Ohashi J, Patarapotikul J, Hananantachai H, Naka I, Looareesuwan S, Tokunaga K
  Title
Fcgamma receptor IIA and IIIB polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to cerebral malaria.
  Journal
Parasitol Int 51:361-6 (2002)
DOI:10.1016/s1383-5769(02)00040-5
Reference
PMID:17435165 (FCGR2B)
  Authors
Clatworthy MR, Willcocks L, Urban B, Langhorne J, Williams TN, Peshu N, Watkins NA, Floto RA, Smith KG
  Title
Systemic lupus erythematosus-associated defects in the inhibitory receptor FcgammaRIIb reduce susceptibility to malaria.
  Journal
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:7169-74 (2007)
DOI:10.1073/pnas.0608889104
Reference
PMID:13682585 (G6PD)
  Authors
ALLISON AC, CLYDE DF
  Title
Malaria in African children with deficient erythrocyte glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase.
  Journal
Br Med J 1:1346-9 (1961)
DOI:10.1136/bmj.1.5236.1346
Reference
PMID:26416757 (GYPA GYPB GYPC)
  Authors
Band G, Rockett KA, Spencer CC, Kwiatkowski DP
  Title
A novel locus of resistance to severe malaria in a region of ancient balancing selection.
  Journal
Nature 526:253-7 (2015)
DOI:10.1038/nature15390
Reference
PMID:11713529 (HBB)
  Authors
Modiano D, Luoni G, Sirima BS, Simpore J, Verra F, Konate A, Rastrelli E, Olivieri A, Calissano C, Paganotti GM, D'Urbano L, Sanou I, Sawadogo A, Modiano G, Coluzzi M
  Title
Haemoglobin C protects against clinical Plasmodium falciparum malaria.
  Journal
Nature 414:305-8 (2001)
DOI:10.1038/35104556
Reference
PMID:9259284 (ICAM1)
  Authors
Fernandez-Reyes D, Craig AG, Kyes SA, Peshu N, Snow RW, Berendt AR, Marsh K, Newbold CI
  Title
A high frequency African coding polymorphism in the N-terminal domain of ICAM-1 predisposing to cerebral malaria in Kenya.
  Journal
Hum Mol Genet 6:1357-60 (1997)
DOI:10.1093/hmg/6.8.1357
Reference
PMID:9457101 (NOS2)
  Authors
Kun JF, Mordmuller B, Lell B, Lehman LG, Luckner D, Kremsner PG
  Title
Polymorphism in promoter region of inducible nitric oxide synthase gene and protection against malaria.
  Journal
Lancet 351:265-6 (1998)
DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)78273-8
Reference
PMID:10403343 (SLC4A1)
  Authors
Allen SJ, O'Donnell A, Alexander ND, Mgone CS, Peto TE, Clegg JB, Alpers MP, Weatherall DJ
  Title
Prevention of cerebral malaria in children in Papua New Guinea by southeast Asian ovalocytosis band 3.
  Journal
Am J Trop Med Hyg 60:1056-60 (1999)
DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.1999.60.1056
Reference
PMID:17322885 (TIRAP)
  Authors
Khor CC, Chapman SJ, Vannberg FO, Dunne A, Murphy C, Ling EY, Frodsham AJ, Walley AJ, Kyrieleis O, Khan A, Aucan C, Segal S, Moore CE, Knox K, Campbell SJ, Lienhardt C, Scott A, Aaby P, Sow OY, Grignani RT, Sillah J, Sirugo G, Peshu N, Williams TN, Maitland K, Davies RJ, Kwiatkowski DP, Day NP, Yala D, Crook DW, Marsh K, Berkley JA, O'Neill LA, Hill AV
  Title
A Mal functional variant is associated with protection against invasive pneumococcal disease, bacteremia, malaria and tuberculosis.
  Journal
Nat Genet 39:523-8 (2007)
DOI:10.1038/ng1976
Reference
PMID:7935762 (TNF)
  Authors
McGuire W, Hill AV, Allsopp CE, Greenwood BM, Kwiatkowski D
  Title
Variation in the TNF-alpha promoter region associated with susceptibility to cerebral malaria.
  Journal
Nature 371:508-10 (1994)
DOI:10.1038/371508a0
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