KEGG   PATHWAY: uah05320
uah05320                    Pathway                                

Autoimmune thyroid disease - Ursus arctos horribilis
The classification of autoimmune throid disease (AITD) includes Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) or chronic autoimmune thyroiditis and its variants, Graves' disease (GD) and autoimmune atrophic thyroiditis or primary myxedema. HT is characterized by the presence of goitre, thyroid autoantibodies against thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and thyroglobulin (Tg) in serum and varying degrees of thyroid dysfunction. During HT, self-reactive CD4+ T lymphocytes (Th) recruit B cells and CD8+ T cells (CTL) into the thyroid. Disease progression leads to the death of thyroid cells and hypothyroidism. Both autoantibodies and thyroid-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) have been proposed to be responsible for autoimmune thyrocyte depletion. In GD, the TSH-R is the most important autoantigen. Antibodies directed against it mimic the effects of the hormone on thyroid cells, TSH, stimulating autonomous production of thyroxine and triiodothyronine and causing hyperthyroidism. The presence of TSH-R-blocking antibodies that bind the TSH receptor in a similar fashion to the antibodies in patients with Grave's disease but that block rather than activate the receptor explains some cases of atrophic hypothyroidism.
Human Diseases; Immune disease
Pathway map
uah05320  Autoimmune thyroid disease

Ursus arctos horribilis [GN:uah]
113260290  interferon alpha-1/2-like [KO:K05414]
113260291  interferon alpha-1/2-like [KO:K05414]
113260293  interferon alpha-1/2-like [KO:K05414]
113260294  interferon alpha-2-like [KO:K05414]
113250557  CTLA4; cytotoxic T-lymphocyte protein 4 isoform X1 [KO:K06538]
113269244  TPO; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: thyroid peroxidase [KO:K00431] [EC:]
113252704  TG; thyroglobulin [KO:K10809]
113243684  LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DP alpha 1 chain-like [KO:K06752]
113243685  LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DP beta 1 chain-like [KO:K06752]
113243774  HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DR alpha chain [KO:K06752]
113243775  DLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DR-1 beta chain [KO:K06752]
113243776  SLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DQ haplotype D alpha chain-like [KO:K06752]
113243777  HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DQ beta 1 chain-like [KO:K06752]
113243778  DLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DR-1 beta chain-like [KO:K06752]
113243779  HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DO beta chain isoform X1 [KO:K06752]
113243784  HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DM beta chain isoform X1 [KO:K06752]
113243786  HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DM alpha chain isoform X1 [KO:K06752]
113243788  HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DO alpha chain [KO:K06752]
113265359  uncharacterized protein LOC113265359 [KO:K10785]
113251861  CD80; T-lymphocyte activation antigen CD80 [KO:K05412]
113252170  CD86; T-lymphocyte activation antigen CD86 isoform X1 [KO:K05413]
113250560  CD28; T-cell-specific surface glycoprotein CD28 [KO:K06470]
113255635  IL2; interleukin-2 [KO:K05429]
113249452  HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, A-11 alpha chain-like isoform X1 [KO:K06751]
113250163  saoe class I histocompatibility antigen, A alpha chain-like [KO:K06751]
113264228  LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, A-3 alpha chain [KO:K06751]
113243704  DLA class I histocompatibility antigen, A9/A9 alpha chain-like isoform X1 [KO:K06751]
113243706  HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, alpha chain G-like isoform X1 [KO:K06751]
113243878  LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, A-32 alpha chain-like [KO:K06751]
113261534  H-2 class I histocompatibility antigen, Q10 alpha chain-like [KO:K06751]
113262825  FASLG; tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 6 [KO:K04389]
113258968  FAS; tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 6 [KO:K04390]
113259145  PRF1; perforin-1 [KO:K07818]
113245994  granzyme B-like isoform X1 [KO:K01353] [EC:]
113241871  CD40LG; CD40 ligand [KO:K03161]
113258674  CD40; tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 5 isoform X1 [KO:K03160]
113261716  IL4; interleukin-4 [KO:K05430]
113261714  IL5; interleukin-5 [KO:K05428]
113242596  IL10; interleukin-10 [KO:K05443]
113267145  uncharacterized protein LOC113267145 [KO:K06856]
113270272  TSHR; thyrotropin receptor [KO:K04249]
113264851  CGA; glycoprotein hormones alpha chain [KO:K08522]
113244442  TSHB; thyrotropin subunit beta [KO:K05251]
C01382  Iodine
C01829  Thyroxine
C02465  Triiodothyronine
D00636  Amiodarone hydrochloride (JP17/USP)
Fountoulakis S, Tsatsoulis A.
On the pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid disease: a unifying hypothesis.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 60:397-409 (2004)
Chistiakov DA.
Immunogenetics of Hashimoto's thyroiditis.
J Autoimmune Dis 2:1 (2005)
McIver B, Morris JC.
The pathogenesis of Graves' disease.
Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 27:73-89 (1998)
Stassi G, De Maria R.
Autoimmune thyroid disease: new models of cell death in autoimmunity.
Nat Rev Immunol 2:195-204 (2002)
Collins J, Gough S.
Autoimmunity in thyroid disease.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 29 Suppl 2:S417-24 (2002)
Ruwhof C, Drexhage HA.
Iodine and thyroid autoimmune disease in animal models.
Thyroid 11:427-36 (2001)
Tsatsoulis A.
The role of stress in the clinical expression of thyroid autoimmunity.
Ann N Y Acad Sci 1088:382-95 (2006)
Prummel MF, Strieder T, Wiersinga WM.
The environment and autoimmune thyroid diseases.
Eur J Endocrinol 150:605-18 (2004)
Kopp P.
The TSH receptor and its role in thyroid disease.
Cell Mol Life Sci 58:1301-22 (2001)
uah04210  Apoptosis
uah04514  Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs)
uah04610  Complement and coagulation cascades
uah04612  Antigen processing and presentation
uah04660  T cell receptor signaling pathway
uah04662  B cell receptor signaling pathway
uah04918  Thyroid hormone synthesis
KO pathway

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